The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009. A Roadmap to Ensure Right to Education in India


Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India

It is generally acknowledged in contemporary discourse that access to good quality elementary education, at the minimum, must be treated as a fundamental right. The enactment of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (henceforth RTE) Act 2009 is a roadmap to ensure right to education

Historical Context

To quickly recap the recent steps in the journey of the RTE Act 2009: the 86th Amendment Act, 2002, made three specific provisions in the Constitution to facilitate the realisation of free and compulsory education to children between the age of six and 14 years as a fundamental right. These were

(i)                  Adding Article 21A in Part III (fundamental rights),

(ii)                 Modifying Article 45, and

(iii)               Adding a new clause (k) under Article 51A (fundamental duties), making the parent or guardian responsible for providing opportunities for education to their children between six and 14 years

Article 21A of the Constitution – Constitution (Eighty – Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.

December 2002

86th Amendment Act (2002) via Article 21A (Part III) seeks to make free and compulsory education a Fundamental Right for all children in the age group 6-14 years.

October 2003

A first draft of the legislation envisaged in the above Article, viz., Free and Compulsory Education for Children Bill, 2003, was prepared and posted on this website in October, 2003, inviting comments and suggestions from the public at large.


Subsequently, taking into account the suggestions received on this draft, a revised draft of the Bill entitled Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2004

June 2005

The CABE (Central Advisory Board of Education) committee drafted the ‘Right to Education’ Bill and submitted to the Ministry of HRD. MHRD sent it to NAC where Mrs. Sonia Gandhi is the Chairperson. NAC sent the Bill to PM for his observation.

14th July 2006

The finance committee and planning commission rejected the Bill citing the lack of funds and a Model bill was sent to states for making the necessary arrangements. (Post-86th amendment, States had already cited lack of funds at State level)


Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2008, passed in both Houses of Parliament in 2009. The law received President’s assent in August 2009. . After much dithering for almost seven years subsequent to the 86th Amendment to the Constitution, the RTE Act 2009 received presidential assent on 26 August 2009, taking forward the agenda of free and universal elementary education, although the central government is yet to notify it.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the

The Ministry of HRD set up a high-level, 14-member National Advisory Council (NAC) for implementation of the Act. The members included Kiran Karnik, former president of NASSCOM; Krishna Kumar, former director of the NCERT; Mrinal Miri, former vice-chancellor of North-East Hill University; Yogendra Yadav – social scientist. India

Sajit Krishnan Kutty, Secretary of The Educators Assisting Children’s Hopes (TEACH) India; Annie Namala, an activist and head of Centre for Social Equity and Inclusion; and Aboobacker Ahmad, vice-president of Muslim Education Society, Kerala.

1 April 2010

Article 21-A and the RTE Act come into effect.

The roadmap to implement the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act was discussed at a meeting of state Education Secretaries recently.

According to the minutes of the meeting:

  1. Nearly 7.8 lakh additional classrooms and seven lakh girls’ toilets will have to be created to implement the new law which has come into force from April 1. The government will spend Rs 1.71 lakh crore in the next five years for implementing the Act.
  2. Each child will be provided uniforms at Rs 400 per annum. Many states are already providing uniforms from their own budget. “But the uniforms will have to be provided by the state governments. They need to agree to this provision and incorporate it in their rules,” a HRD Ministry official said.
  3. Every child will be provided free textbooks while a child with the special need will get Rs 3,000 per annum for inclusive education. Similarly, Rs 10,000 will be given for home-based education for severely disabled children.
  4. There will be a requirement of additional 5.1 lakh teachers to meet the pupils-teacher ration of 30 for one as per the RTE Act. In UP, there is a requirement for 1.5 lakh teachers, followed by Bihar and Gujarat (0.5 to one lakh each), according to the minutes of the meeting.
  5. The Rs 1.71 lakh crore will be spent on the provision of access, infrastructure, training of untrained teachers and for intervention for out-of school children. The teachers’ salary and civil work will have maximum financial requirements of 28 per cent and 24 per cent respectively.
  6. Nearly 17 percent of the total estimate will be spent on child entitlement, while nine percent will go to special training for out-of-school children. School facilities will require eight percent of this money and inclusive education will need six per cent.
  7. The 7.6 lakh untrained teachers will be provided training in next five years. Maximum number of untrained teachers are in Bihar, Jharkhand and the northeastern states.
  8. The RTE stipulates barrier-free education for children with special needs and one classroom per teacher. About 7.8 lakh additional classrooms will be required. Majority of these classrooms will be Uttar Pradesh and Bihar (2.5 lakh each) followed by West Bengal (1.3 lakh) and Assam (30,000).
  9. There are nearly 27,000 ‘kuchcha’ school buildings which will have to be upgraded. Nearly seven lakh toilets for girls will be required, including 90,000 in Bihar, 63,000 in Madhya Pradesh and 54,000 in Orissa. About 3.4 lakh schools will require drinking water facility.

The RTE Act provides for the:

  • Clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means an obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.
  • Lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours.
  • Makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class.
  • Prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition,
  • Provides for the appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.
  • Provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child-friendly and child centred learning
  • Provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.
  • Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighborhood school.
  • Specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments.

Main Features of Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009

  • A child who completes elementary education shall be awarded a certificate.
  • Call needs to be taken for a fixed student-teacher ratio.
  • The financial burden will be shared between the state and the central government. FAQ
  • Free and compulsory education to all children of India in the 6 to 14 age group.
  • If a child above 6 years of age has not been admitted in any school or could not complete his or her elementary education, then he or she shall be admitted in a class appropriate to his or her age. However, if a case may be where a child is directly admitted in the class appropriate to his or her age, then, in order to be at par with others, he or she shall have a right to receive special training within such time limits as may be prescribed. Provided further that a child so admitted to elementary education shall be entitled to free education till the completion of elementary education even after 14 years.
  • Improvement in the quality of education is important.
  • No child shall be held back, expelled or required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary education.
  • Proof of age for admission: For the purpose of admission to elementary education, the age of a child shall be determined on the basis of the birth certificate issued in accordance with the Provisions of Birth. Deaths and Marriages Registration Act 1856, or on the basis of such other document as may be prescribed.No child shall be denied admission in a school for lack of age proof
  • School infrastructure (where there is a problem) need to be improved in every 3 years, else recognition will be canceled.
  • School teachers will need adequate professional degree within five years or else will lose job.
  • Twenty-five percent reservation for economically disadvantaged communities in admission to Class I in all private schools is to be done.

Provision of ‘Free and Compulsory Elementary Education

All children between the ages of 6 and 14 shall have the right to free and compulsory elementary education at a neighborhood school.

There is no direct (school fees) or indirect cost (uniforms, textbooks, mid-day meals, transportation) to be borne by the child or the parents to obtain the elementary education. The government will provide schooling free-of-cost until a child’s elementary education is completed.

The role of community and parents to ensure RTE

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009 insists upon schools to constitute School Management Committees (SMCs) comprising local authority officials, parents, guardians and teachers. The SMCs shall form School Development Plans and monitor the utilization of government grants and the whole school environment.

RTE also mandates the inclusion of 50 percent women and parents of children from disadvantaged groups in SMCs. Such community participation will be crucial to ensuring a child-friendly “whole school” environment through separate toilet facilities for girls and boys and adequate attention to health, water, sanitation and hygiene issues.

Promote Child-Friendly Schools

All schools must comply with infrastructure and teacher norms for an effective learning environment. Two trained teachers will be provided for every sixty students at the primary level.

Teachers are required to attend school regularly and punctually, complete curriculum instruction, assess learning abilities and hold regular parent-teacher meetings. The number of teachers shall be based on the number of students rather than by grade.

The state shall ensure adequate support to teachers leading to improved learning outcomes of children. The community and civil society will have an important role to play in collaboration with the SMCs to ensure school quality with equity. The state will provide the policy framework and create an enabling environment to ensure RTE becomes a reality for every child.

The key issues for achieving RTE

RTE provides a ripe platform to reach the unreached, with specific provisions for disadvantaged groups, such as child laborers, migrant children, children with special needs, or those who have a “disadvantage owing to social, cultural economic, geographical, linguistic, gender or such other factor.” RTE focuses on the quality of teaching and learning, which requires accelerated efforts and substantial reforms:

  • Bringing eight million out-of-school children into classes at the age appropriate level with the support to stay in school and succeed poses a major challenge necessitating flexible, innovative approaches.
  • Creative and sustained initiatives are crucial to train more than one million new and untrained teachers within the next five years and to reinforce the skills of in-service teachers to ensure child-friendly education.
  • Disparities must be eliminated to assure quality with equity. Investing in preschool is a key strategy in meeting goals.
  • Families and communities also have a large role to play to ensure child-friendly education for each and every one of the estimated 190 million girls and boys in India who should be in elementary school today.

The National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights shall review the safeguards for rights provided under this Act, investigate complaints and have the powers of a civil court in trying cases.

States should constitute a State Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (SCPCR) or the Right to Education Protection Authority (REPA) within six months of 1 April 2010. Any person wishing to file a grievance must submit a written complaint to the local authority..

Appeals will be decided by the SCPCR/REPA. Prosecution of offenses requires the sanction of an officer authorized by the appropriate government.

25% quota for poor

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009, on April 12, 2012 and directed every school, including privately-run ones, to give immediately free education to students from socially and economically backward classes from class-I till they reach the age of 14 years.

The court threw out the challenge by private unaided schools to Section 12(1)(c) of the Act that says every recognized school imparting elementary education, even if it is an unaided school not receiving any kind of aid or grant to meet its expenses, is obliged to admit disadvantaged boys and girls from their neighbourhood.

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has been designated as the agency to monitor provisions of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act.

Admissions provisions

A series of measures have been taken by the NCPCR to ensure that school admission procedures all over the country are in accordance with the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009. This was necessitated by the fact that schools in some states were carrying out a screening procedure for admission of children in the elementary stage of education prohibited by the Act.In April, the NCPCR wrote to the chief secretaries of all the states asking them to issue Government Orders to ensure that school admission procedures were in accordance with the RTE Act. This was prompted by the Directorate of Education, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD), issuing a notice in March inviting applications for admission to Class VI in the Rajkiya Pratibha Vikas Vidyalayas run by the Directorate.

The NCPCR’s intervention in April came in response to an admission notice that had been issued by the GNCTD’s Directorate of Education in all leading newspapers as well as in the Directorate’s website, inviting students to purchase application forms costing Rs 25 each and thereafter sit for an entrance exam. Since the RTE Act prohibits any kind of screening procedure and permits admissions into any school through random selection only, the notice was clearly in contravention of the Act.

As the nodal body monitoring the implementation of the RTE Act, the Commission wrote to the Principal Secretary, Education, GNCTD, asking the admission notice be withdrawn and a notice in Conformity with the provisions of the RTE be issued instead. It also requested that Government Orders (GO) be issued to all schools in the GNCTD within a week regarding the provisions of the Act so that the schools made the required changes in their procedures and modes of functioning.

As the Directorate did not comply with this request, it was summoned by the Commission in June and given time till July to re-conduct the admission in accordance with RTE procedures. To ensure that the RTE Act was not similarly contravened in other states, the NCPCR has in its letter to the chief secretaries said that the GO they issue to schools on the matter must specify that:

  1. Admission procedures be made in accordance with the RTE Act
  2. 25 per cent reservation is ensured for weaker sections in all ‘specified category’ schools and private unaided schools, and reservation norms for government-aided schools are to be followed

Further, private schools recognized by the government must also be mapped out and issued a notice regarding provisions in the Act as well as the procedures by which children in the neighborhood could claim admission to the schools. Also, the task of finalizing State Rules on the RTE Act must be completed at the earliest.

In response to queries regarding Navodaya Schools which have been designated as ‘specified category’ schools in the RTE Act, the NCPCR clarified that the provisions of Section 13 of RTE Act applied to all schools without exception.

The relevant provision of Section 13 of the Act is:

No school or person shall, while admitting a child, collect any capitation fee and subject the child or his or her parents or guardians to any screening procedure. Any school or person, if in contravention of the provisions of sub-section (1):

  1. Receives capitation fee, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten times the capitation fee charged
  2. Subjects a child to screening procedure shall be punishable with fine which may extend to Rs 25,000 for the first contravention and Rs 50,000 for each subsequent contravention.

No Screening for Admission to Navodaya Schools

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has written to the commissioner, Navodaya Schools, as well as the state education secretaries against any kind of screening for admission of children to elementary education (Classes 1 to eight). The NCPCR intervened to check violation of RTE provisions after it got reports of Navodaya schools screening students in Delhi and other states.

Quoting Section 13 of the RTE Act 2009, the NCPCR has pointed out that while admitting a child to school, the Act prohibits schools or persons from collecting capitation fees or subjecting the child or the parents and guardians to any screening procedure. Any school or person receiving capitation fees, it has pointed out, could be punished with a fine which could be ten times the capitation fee charged.

Subjecting a child to screening could lead to a fine of Rs 25,000 for the first contravention and Rs 50,000 for each subsequent contravention. Section 13 applies to all schools even the Navodaya schools which have been designated special category schools in the RTE Act. Screening procedures being conducted by Navodaya Schools are a violation of the RTE Act, it clarified. NCPCR has also requested state governments to issue orders to all schools regarding the provisions of the Act so that the required changes in their procedures and modes of functioning are made within a week.

Each child to get a free uniform, books

Each child from class I to class VIII in the country will be provided free textbooks and uniforms if a roadmap prepared by the Centre to implement the Right To Education Act (RTE) is accepted by the states.

Eligibility for Teachers

The following persons shall be eligible for appearing in the TET:

  • A person who has acquired the academic and professional qualifications specified in the NCTE Notification dated 23rd August 2010.
  • A person who is pursuing any of the teacher education courses (recognized by the NCTE or the RCI, as the case may be) specified in the NCTE Notification dated 23rd August 2010.
  • The eligibility condition for appearing in TET may be relaxed in respect of a State/UT which has been granted relaxation under sub-section (2) of section 23 of the RTE Act. The relaxation will be specified in the Notification issued by the Central Government under that sub-section.

Critical Evaluation of RTI

One Step Forward

In September 2004, the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) Committee was constituted as a first step to drafting the RTE Bill. The bill was submitted to the government in June 2005, although without any consultations being held with the public. It was found wanting on several fronts, beginning with its definition of a “child” (not less than six years and not more than 14 years), to not owning up to the economic responsibility of the union government while fleshing out the provisions. Further, not only did the bill have none of the tenets of the Common School System (CSS) that would have allowed for compulsory and uniform quality education to all, but it was also unable to suggest specific amendments necessary in the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.

Two Steps Backward

The government, however, dithered on moving ahead with the recommendations made in the draft RTE Bill, 2005, citing lack of funds, and drafted a Model Right to Education Bill, 2006, and proposed providing incentives to states for adopting the Model Bill. The draft Model Bill’s implementation was linked to the center funding states’ Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) costs to the tune of 75%. The financial responsibility of providing free and compulsory education was primarily on the states and Union Territories (UTs), making elementary education the first charge on the revenue of the state/UT governments. This was, clearly, a move to weaken whatever had been attained through enacting the 86th Amendment in 2002.

Due to a combination of factors, including public pressure, a decision was finally taken to introduce a central legislation in the budget session of Parliament in 2008. The CABE draft of August 2005 was resurrected.

RTE Act 2009

Every child of the age of six to 14 years shall have a right to free and compulsory education in a neighborhood school till completion of elementary education.

One would have expected that after so many rounds of drafting and redrafting the enactment, the final outcome would be an effective instrument for any child in this country to demand her basic entitlement.

The act further fortifies the multitiered and unequal education structure as opposed to a CSS. Of the various categories of schools, a clear distinction is made in how much of the burden of providing free and compulsory education would fall on each kind. While the government-run schools would cover costs associated with all its wards, the government aided schools would be accountable to admitting students proportionate to 25% of their annual grants.

Although the act requires that special category schools (i e, Kendriya Vidyalayas, Navodaya Vidyalayas and Sainik Schools) and unaided schools admit 25% children from the weaker sections and disadvantaged groups of the population, it ensures reimbursement by the government to these unaided schools, based on per child expenditure incurred towards admitting these students. One can understand if the government was keen to get the act operational at the earliest and was temporarily subsidizing the costs of private schools for providing education. However, this is certainly not the case, as the government does not specify any time frame up to when it would continue to reimburse the costs of education for private schools. Though the act expresses interest in taking necessary steps in providing free pre-school education for children above three years of age, leaving out this critical segment of the child population from the definition is worrisome. Not only does the act fail to cover all children, it does not provide definite timelines for many provisions.

Flexible or Ambiguous?

As already noted, the five-month-old enactment continues to be in a state of suspended animation with the government yet to set a date for the act to come into force as a legally binding obligation. This is not the only worrisome aspect about timelines with regard to the act. Several provisions leave scope for the government to delay effective implementation.

This uncertainty is also evident in determining the eligibility of a teacher. As a critical component affecting outcomes, eligibility of teachers would be based on minimum qualifications as laid down by an academic authority. However, the Act also allows for unqualified teachers to continue for five years after the Act comes into effect, on grounds of lack of availability of trained teachers. It also provides for relaxation of rules and appointment of unqualified teachers for five years till the Act is notified. This only reflects the government’s non-serious approach to implementing the Act and its disregard of quality of outcomes.

Quality: Real or Rhetorical?

The Act lists key norms and standards that would need to be adhered to by all schools, failing which no school may be established. This provision is contradicted when the government gives three more years after the Act takes effect to schools that do not comply with the norms as specified in the schedule. To add to this, the central government may rule to change the schedule by adding or even omitting norms and standards. It is acceptable if items or qualifications are added to the existing parameters; it is another matter that even now the government is unable to set the basic minimum requirements for a school. Another aspect relating to quality is the nature of job conditions for teachers. With a plethora of evidence pointing to the fact that differential remuneration to teachers affects their motivation, the absence of any indicative benchmarks for teachers’ salary is a significant oversight in the Act. Further, while the Act suggests that no teacher should be engaged in any noneducational tasks, it excludes their engagement in the population census, duties pertaining to disaster relief and elections at various levels. The act turn a blind eye to the workload and the absence of motivation among teachers, it forbids them from taking private tuitions. With more than 26% of children in classes IV to VIII attending private tuitions classes, this may be a case of misplaced activism. Setting uniform salary norms for teachers and withdrawing them from all non-educational purposes might have served the cause more effectively.

The Accountability

Quality monitoring is attainable only in a culture of accountability. To ensure this, the Act requires that all schools, except those that are unaided, constitute school management committees. Apart from complex questions relating to fixing of accountability at different levels, which remain unaddressed. it is not clear why unaided schools are left out of the purview of accountability with regard to the provisions contained in Section 21.1, when they admit 25% of the underprivileged students.

Further, the government seems to be in no hurry to adhere to the spirit of the right to education, going by the number of disclaimers that are provided. These allow for the prosecution to be instituted only with the previous sanction of an authorized government personnel in the event of a school charging any kind of fees. These also relate to the decision to scrap the recognition of any school and prosecution for running a school without any recognition. An intelligent guess is sufficient to peg the occurrence of such prosecution as unlikely.

The Act also maintains that legal proceedings against such actions of the government cannot be initiated in the event that these have been undertaken in good faith and best interests of the children. Rather than pursuing an objective vision, the Act is ridden with loopholes. There are many other issues that need to be examined closely (such as harmonization of rules and provisions in place in different states with the RTE Act 2009, among others).

Financial Responsibility

Central and state governments shall share financial responsibility for RTE. The central government shall prepare estimates of expenditures. State governments will be provided a percentage of these costs.

There is no clarity on who will take the lead in financing the Act. Ideally, the central government ought to be shouldering this duty in the light of the poor fiscal situation in most states. Acknowledging this reality, the Act notes that the states may seek a predetermined percentage of expenditure as grants-in-aid from the central government, based on the recommendations of the finance committee on assessment of additional resource requirements for any state. Be that as it may, the Act reveals an obvious contradiction when, on the one hand, it suggests that both the union and state governments have concurrent responsibility to finance the Act,22 with the centre preparing estimates of capital and recurring expenditure under the Act, while on the other, it unequivocally holds the state governments responsible for providing the funds for implementation of the Act.23

The union government’s attempt to shy away from taking primary financial responsibility of implementing the act is in keeping with its reluctance to allocate adequately for the social sector.

The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) Committee had estimated that in the six-year period from 2006-07 to 2011-12,24 additional outlays of Rs 4.36 lakh crore (with teachers’ salaries at Kendriya Vidyalaya norms) and Rs 3.93 lakh crore (with teachers’ salaries at the prevalent scales) would have to be allocated to universalise elementary education. Sticking to the lower level of CABE projections, the additional required outlays are Rs 3.93 lakh crore for a five-year period. Reports in the media that the required additional outlays amount to Rs 1.78 lakh crore, spread over a period of five years, as estimated by the MHRD, for implementing the RTE Act 2009 seem extremely disturbing, if not mysterious.

In principle, the RTE Act 2009, with appropriate modifications and financial provisioning, offers a great opportunity to correct the anomaly of poor education outcomes, and can deliver on the long-standing commitment of providing basic and quality education to the so called “demographic dividend” of the country. Unfortunately, short-term political gains and poor judgment on the part of politicians and policymakers may continue to be major roadblocks in accomplishing this critical goal.

In short this act is intended to makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 and 14 and specifies minimum norms in elementary schools. It requires all private schools to reserve 25% of seats to children (to be reimbursed by the state as part of the public-private partnership plan). Kids are admitted in to private schools based on economic status or caste based reservations. It also prohibits all unrecognised schools from practice, and makes provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parent for admission. The Act also provides that no child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary education. There is also a provision for special training of school drop-outs to bring them up to par with students of the same age.

The passing of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009 marks a historic moment for the children of India.

This Act serves as a building block to ensure that every child has his or her right (as an entitlement) to get a quality elementary education, and that the State, with the help of families and communities, fulfils this obligation.




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RELIGION-“True wisdom that leads us to please God.”

Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India

When I admire the wonders of a sunset or the beauty of the moon, my soul expands in the worship of the creator. Mahatma Gandhi

We need  to understand the correct definition of religion and the ultimate meaning of the word religion. The word religion comes from the Latin and while there are a few different translations, the most prevalent roots take you back to the Latin word “Re-Ligare”. “Ligare” means “to bind” or to “connect”.  Adding the “re” before “ligare” causes the word tomean “Re-Bind” or “Re-Connect.”

The English word “religion” is derived from the Middle English “religioun” which came from the Old French “religion.

There is massive controversy surrounding the word “religion” and the definition of religion. People define religion as a set of beliefs, and then atheists assume that because a set of beliefs has become corrupt, then all religion is corrupt.

Religion is not a bad word. Religion does not encourage people to “stop thinking”. In fact, religion encourages people to think about how they can re-bind themselves or re-connect with a God who is infinitely more intelligent and loving.


Nature of Religion

Religion is a pervasive and significant cultural phenomenon, so people who study culture and human nature have sought to explain the nature of religion, the nature of religious beliefs, and the reasons why religions exist in the first place.

There have been as many theories as theorists, it seems, and while none fully captures what religion is, all offer important insights on the nature of religion and possible reasons why religion has persisted through human history.

Religion is Systematized Animism & Magic: E.B. Tylor and James Frazer are two of the earliest researchers to develop theories of the nature of religion. They defined religion as essentially being the belief in spiritual beings, making it systematized animism. The reason religion exists is to help people make sense of events which would otherwise be incomprehensible by relying on unseen, hidden forces. This inadequately addresses the social aspect of religion, though, depicting religion and animism are purely intellectual moves.

Religion is Mass Neurosis: According to Sigmund Freud, religion is a mass neurosis and exists as a response to deep emotional conflicts and weaknesses. A by-product of psychological distress, Freud argued that it should be possible to eliminate the illusions of religion by alleviating that distress. This approach is laudable for getting us to recognize that there can be hidden psychological motives behind religion and religious beliefs, but his arguments from analogy are weak and too often his position is circular.

Religion is a Means of Social Organization: Emile Durkheim is responsible for the development of sociology and wrote that “…religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden.” His focus was the importance of the concept of the “sacred” and its relevance to the welfare of the community.

Religious beliefs are symbolic expressions of social realities without which religious beliefs have no meaning. Durkheim reveals how religion serves in social functions.

Religion is the Opium of the Masses: According to Karl Marx, religion is a social institutions which is dependent upon material and economic realities in a given society. With no independent history, it is a creature of productive forces. Marx wrote: “The religious world is but the reflex of the real world.” Marx argued that religion is an illusion whose chief purpose is to provide reasons and excuses to keep society functioning just as it is. Religion takes our highest ideals and aspirations and alienates us from them.

Religion is a Focus on the Sacred: Key to Mircea Eliade’s understanding of religion are two concepts: the sacred and the profane. Eliade says religion is primarily about belief in the supernatural, which for him lies at the heart of the sacred. He does not try to explain away religion and rejects all reductionist efforts. Eliade only focuses on “timeless forms” of ideas which he says keep recurring in religions all over the world, but in doing so he ignores their specific historical contexts or dismisses them as irrelevant.

Religion is Anthropomorphization: Stewart Guthrie argues that religion is “systematic anthropomorphism” — the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things or events. We interpret ambiguous information as whatever matters most to survival, which means seeing living beings. If we are in the woods and see a dark shape that might be a bear or a rock, it is smart to “see” a bear. If we are mistaken, we lose little; if we are right, we survive. This conceptual strategy leads to “seeing” spirits and gods at work around us.

Religion governs Emotions: Rejecting most anthropological, psychological, and sociological explanations of religion, E.E. Evans-Pritchard sought a comprehensive explanation of religion that took both its intellectual and social aspects into account.

He didn’t reach any final answers, but did argue that religion should be regarded as a vital aspect of society, as its “construct of the heart.” Beyond that, it may not be possible to explain religion in general, just to explain and understand particular religions.

Religion as Culture and Meaning: An anthropologist who describes culture as a system of symbols and actions which convey meaning, Clifford Geertz treats religion as a vital component of cultural meanings. He argues that religion carries symbols which establish especially powerful moods or feelings, help explain human existence by giving it an ultimate meaning, and purport to connect us to a reality that is “more real” than what we see every day. The religious sphere thus has a special status above and beyond regular life.

Means of Understanding Religion:

Here,  are some of the principle means of explaining why religion exists: as an explanation for what we don’t understand; as a psychological reaction to our lives and surroundings; as an expression of social needs; as a tool of the status quo to keep some people in power and others out; as a focus upon supernatural and “sacred” aspects of our lives; and as an evolutionary strategy for survival.

If we define religion as the worship of supernatural forces, we must observe at the onset that some peoples have apparently no religion at all. But such cases are exceptional, and the old belief that religion is universal is substantially correct. To the philosopher this is one of the outstanding facts of history and psychology; he is not content to know that all religions contain much nonsense, but rather he is fascinated by the problem of the antiquity and persistence of belief. What are the sources of the indestructible piety of mankind?

Fear was the first mother of gods. Fear, above all, of death. Primitive life was beset with a thousand dangers , and seldom ended with natural decay; long before old age could come, violence or some strange disease carried off the great majority of men. Hence early man did not believe that death was ever natural; he attributed it to the operation of supernatural agencies. As for example in the mythology of the natives of New Britain death came to men by an error of the gods. The good god Kambinana told his foolish brother  Korvouva, “Go down to men and tell them to cast their skins; so shall they avoid death. But tell the serpents that they henceforth die.” Korvouva mixed the messages ; he delivered the secret of immortality to the snakes, and the doom of death to men. Many tribes thought that death was due to the shrinkage of the skin, and that man would be immortal if only he could mould.

Fear of death, wonder at the causes of chance events or unintelligible happenings, hope for divine aid and gratitude for good fortune, cooperated to generate religious faith. Wonder and mystery adhered particularly to sex and dreams, and the mysterious influence of heavenly bodies upon the earth and man. Primitive man marvelled at the phantoms that he saw in sleep, and was struck with terror when he beheld, in his dreams, the figures of those whom he knew to be dead. He buried his dead in the earth to prevent their return; he buried victuals and goods with the corpse lest it should come back to curse him; sometimes he left to the dead the house in which death had come, while he himself moved on to another shelter; in some places he carried the body out of the house not through a door but through a hole in the wall, and bore it rapidly three times around the dwelling so that the spirit might forget the entrance and never haunt  the home (S&K,859;Lippert,115).

Such experiences convinced early man that every living thing had a soul, or secret life, within it , which could be separated from the body in illness, sleep or death. ‘Let no one wake a man brusquely, “said one of the Upanishads of ancient India ,” For it is a matter difficult of cure if the soul finds not its way back to him”(Brihadaranyaka Upanished,4.,3;.). Not man alone but all things had souls; the external world was not insensitive or dead, it was intensely alive; if this were not so, thought primitive philosophy, nature would be full of inexplicable occurrences, like the motion of the sun, or the death dealing lightening, or the whispering of the trees. The personal way of conceiving objects and events preceded the impersonal or abstract; religion preceded philosophy. Such animism is the poetry of religion, and the religion of poetry. We may see it at its lowest in the wonder- struck eyes of a dog that watches a paper blown before him by the wind, and perhaps believes that a spirit moves the paper from within; and we find the same feeling at the highest in the language of a poet. To the primitive mind-and the poet in all ages- mountains, rivers, rocks, trees, stars, sun, moon and sky are sacra mentally holy things, because they are the outward and visible signs of inward and invisible souls. There is wisdom as well as beauty in this animism; It is good and nourishing to treat all things as alive.,

Since all things have souls, or contain hidden gods, the objects of religious worship are numberless. They fall into six classes

1. Celestial

2. Terrestrial

3. Sexual

4. Animal

5. Human

6. Divine

Of course we shall never know which of our universe of objects was worshipped first.

Most human gods, however, seem to have been in the beginning merely idealized dead men. The appearance of the dead in dreams was enough to establish the worship of the dead, for worship, if not the child, is at least the brother, of fear. Men who had been powerful during life, and therefore had been feared, were especially likely to be worshiped after their death. Among several primitive peoples the word for god actually meant “ a dead man “; even today the English word SPIRIT and the German word GEIST mean both ghost and soul. The Greeks, the Hindus, invoked their dead precisely as the Christians were to invoke the saints. So strong was the belief-first generated in dreams- in the continued life of the dead, the primitive men sometimes sent message to them in the most literal way; in one tribe of the chief, to convey such a letter, recited it verbally to a slave, and then cut off his head for special delivery; if the chief forget something he sent another decapitated slave as a postscript.

Gradually the cult of the ghost became the worship of ancestors. All the dead were feared, and had to be propitiated, lest they should curse and blight the lives of the living. The ancestor worship was so well adapted to promote social authority and continuity, conservatism and order, that is soon spread to every region of the earth. The institution held the family powerfully together despite the hostility of successive generations, and provided an invisible structure for many early societies. And just as compulsion grew into conscience, so fear graduated into love; the ritual of ancestor-worship, probably generated by terror, later aroused the sentiment of awe, and finally developed piety and devotion It is the tendency of gods to begin as ogres and to end as loving fathers; the idol passes into an ideal as the growing security, peacefulness and moral sense of the worshipers pacify and transform the features of their once ferocious deities. The slow progress of civilization is reflected in the tardy amiability of the gods.

Such experiences convinced early man that every living thing had a soul, or secret life, within it , which could be separated from the body in illness, sleep or death. ‘Let no one wake a man brusquely, “said one of the Upanishads of ancient India ,” For it is a matter difficult of cure if the soul finds not its way back to him”(Brihadaranyaka Upanished,4.,3;.). Not human alone but all things had souls; the external world was not insensitive or dead, it was intensely alive; if this were not so, thought primitive philosophy, nature would be full of inexplicable occurrences, like the motion of the sun, or the death dealing lightening, or the whispering of the trees. The personal way of conceiving objects and events preceded the impersonal or abstract; religion preceded philosophy. Such animism is the poetry of religion, and the religion of poetry. We may see it at its lowest in the wonder- struck eyes of a dog that watches a paper blown before him by the wind, and perhaps believes that a spirit moves the paper from within; and we find the same feeling at the highest in the language of a poet. To the primitive mind-and the poet in all ages- mountains, rivers, rocks, trees, stars, sun, moon and sky are sacra mentally holy things, because they are the outward and visible signs of inward and invisible souls. There is wisdom as well as beauty in this animism; It is good and nourishing to treat all things as alive.,

The idea of human god was a late step in a long development; it was slowly differentiated through many stages, out of conception of an ocean or multitude of spirits and ghosts surrounding the inhabiting everything. From the fear and worship of vague and formless spirits men seem to have passed to adoration of celestial, vegetative and sexual powers, than to reverence for animals, and worship of ancestors. The notion of God as Father was probably derived from ancestor worship; it meant originally that men had been physically begotten by the gods. In primitive theology there is no sharp or generic distinction between gods and men; to the early Greeks and Hindus, for example their gods were ancestors, and their ancestors were gods. A further development came when, out of the medley of ancestors, certain men and women who had been especially distinguished were singled out for clearer deification; so the greater kings became gods, sometimes even before their death. But with this development we reach the historic civilizations.

To quote Powys,John Cowper,in his book ,” The meaning of culture. Nature begins to present herself as a vast congeries of separate living entities, some visible, some invisible, but all possessed of mind- stuff, all possessed of matter-stuff, and all blending mind and matter together in the basic mystery of being….The world is full of gods! From every planet and from every stone there emanates a presence that disturbs us with a sense of multitudinousness of god-like powers, strong and feeble, great and little, moving between heaven and earth upon their secret purposes”.

Common Elements of Religion

One of the hallmarks of religion is a belief in supernatural beings and forces.  They can take a variety forms, not all of which are found in every religion.  The beliefs usually fall into one of five categories: animatism , animism , ancestral spirits , gods or goddesses, and minor supernatural beings.


A belief in a supernatural power not part of supernatural beings is referred to as animatism.  For those who hold this belief, the power is usually impersonal, unseen, and potentially everywhere.  It is neither good nor evil, but it is powerful and dangerous if misused.  It is something like electricity or “the force” in the Star Wars movies.

Animatism is a widespread belief, especially in small-scale societies.  Among the Polynesian  cultures of the South Pacific, this power is commonly known as “mana” .  For them it is a force that is inherent in all objects, plants, and animals (including people) to different degrees.  Some things or people have more of it than others and are, therefore, potentially dangerous.  For instance, a chief may have so much of it that he must be carried around all of the time.  If he were to walk on the ground, sufficient residual amounts of his mana might remain in his footprints to harm ordinary people if they later stepped on them.  Volcanoes and some other places were thought to have concentrated mana and were, therefore, very dangerous.


A belief that natural objects are animated by spirits is animism.  The term comes from the Latin word for soul (anima).  This belief can take diverse forms.  Things in nature may all have within them different spirits–each rock, tree, and cloud may have its own unique spirit.  Alternatively, all things in nature may be thought of as having the same spirit.  This latter version of animism was characteristic of many Native American cultures.  In both forms of animism, the spirits are thought of as having identifiable personalities and other characteristics such as gender.  A belief in a powerful, mature, protective “mother nature” is an example.  The spirits may be benevolent, malevolent, or neutral.  They can be lovable, terrifying, or even mischievous.  They can interact with humans and can be pleased or irritated by human actions.  Therefore, people must be concerned about them and will try to avoid displeasing them.

Initially, animatism and animism may seem to be the same thing.  In fact both beliefs are often found in the same culture.  The difference, however, is that the “power” of animatism does not have a personality–it is an impersonal “it” rather than a “he” or “she” with human-like characteristics.  Spirits are individual supernatural beings with their own recognizable traits.

Ancestral Spirits

One special category of spirit found in the belief system of most cultures consists of the souls or ghosts of ancestors.  A belief in ancestral spirits is consistent with the widespread conviction that humans have at least two parts–a physical body and some kind of non-physical spirit or soul.  The spirit portion is generally believed to be freed from the body by death and continues to exist in some form.  Ancestral spirits are often seen as retaining an active interest and even membership in their family and society.  Like living people, they can have emotions, feelings, and appetites.  They must be treated well to assure their continued good will and assistance to the living.

In China, ancestral spirits are often thought of as still being active family members.  They are treated warmly with respect and honor.  Traditional Chinese families in rural villages often set a place at feast tables for their ancestors as if they were still living.  If treated well, the ancestral spirits may help their living descendants have bigger crops, do better in business, or achieve other desirable goals because they are still interested in the well being of the family.

In European cultures, the spirits of dead ancestors are usually not thought of so kindly.  The dead and their spirits have been seen historically as dangerous.  They haunt the living and often do unpleasant, frightening, and unpredictable things.  Ghosts or spirits are feared and avoided because of the danger inherent in encounters with them.  This belief that the dead more likely than not will be malevolent is one of the reasons that Europeans have traditionally buried their relatives in cemeteries, which are essentially cities of the dead physically separated from the living.  It also accounts for the success of Hollywood’s many haunted house movies.  Ghosts are stereotypical villains for people in European derived cultures.  In contrast, those cultures that believe ancestral spirits are helpful usually bury or store the remains of dead family members in or around the home to keep them close.  In some cultures, people eat parts of the body of dead relatives or mix their cremated ashes in water and drink it.  This mortuary cannibalism is intended to allow the dead to remain part of their living family.  For the Yanomamö and some other lowland forest peoples of South America, not consuming the ashes of their relatives would be extremely unkind and insensitive.

Gods and Goddesses

Most religions maintain a belief in powerful supernatural beings with individual identities and recognizable attributes.  These beings are usually thought of as gods or goddesses.  Another term for them is deities.  Like spirits, they have individual identities and recognizable attributes.  However, gods and goddesses are more powerful than spirits and other lesser supernatural beings–they can effectively alter all of nature and human fortunes.  As a result, they are commonly worshipped and requests are made of them to help in times of need.

Religions differ in the number of gods that their followers believe exist.  A  belief that there is only one god is referred to as monotheism .  Judaism , Christianity , and Islam  are examples of monotheistic religions.  In contrast, a belief in more than one god is known as polytheism .  Hinduism  is a polytheistic religion.

When there are many gods in a religion, they are typically ranked relative to each other in terms of their powers and their interests.  The supreme god is often an otiose deity .  That is, he or she established the order of the universe at the beginning of time and is now remote from earthly concerns (“otiose” is Greek for “at rest).  As a result, otiose deities may be almost ignored in favor of lesser gods who take an interest in the everyday affairs of humans now.

The simple distinction between monotheism and polytheism may be deceptive.  The truth can be much more complex.  For instance, some scholars have argued that monotheisms, such as Catholicism , are actually de facto polytheisms for many of the faithful.  From this perspective, Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and the saints are prayed to for guidance and help as if they were minor gods themselves.  While the Christian God is considered all powerful, he is often not the one who is turned to by Catholics during life crises.  Perhaps, this is because he is essentially an otiose deity for them.

Hinduism is also more complex than it may seem initially.  In India and Bali, Hindus can be observed fervently worshipping hundreds of different gods.  This fits the classic description of a polytheistic religion.  However,  since the many gods are only different manifestations of the supreme being, or Bhagavan , Hinduism can also be interpreted as a monotheism.  It all depends on whether you are talking to a rural peasant farmer or an educated priest.

Minor Supernatural Beings

Minor supernatural beings are not spirits, gods, humans, or other natural beings.  People do not pray to them for help.  Yet these beings have some supernatural capabilities.  In Western European folk tradition, leprechauns , elves , and pixies  were minor supernatural beings.  They were human-like in appearance and personality but could do things that were beyond the abilities of humans.  Minor supernatural beings often have a “trickster” role.  That is to say, they fool people, do outlandish things, and disappear.  For instance, many rural people in Ireland in the past believed that elves steal boy children.  As a result, mothers clothed their young sons in dresses and let their hair grow long like girls to avoid their being taken.  Tricksters are frequently neither good nor bad.  They do what they want and are often trouble makers.  For the Indians of Western North America, coyote usually had such a trickster role in popular stories.  For instance, he would skillfully disarm powerful people with his words and then magically steal what they valued most when their guard was down.  In most cultures, tricksters are small, quick moving animals.  In India, the trickster is usually a mouse, and in Africa it is a spider.  Among the Native cultures of the Americas in which coyote did not fulfill the trickster role, it was usually a bird such as a raven.  Tricksters are still popular in the high tech, industrialized societies of the modern world.  However, we rarely make the connection with the tricksters of earlier traditions and other cultures.  For instance, the cartoon characters Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck are classic tricksters.  They are small animals that speak and act like humans and play unexpected, humorous tricks at the expense of others and usually avoid the consequences for themselves.

Religions in India

It is impossible to know India without understanding its religious beliefs and practices, which have a large impact on the personal lives of most Indians and influence public life on a daily basis. Indian religions have deep historical roots that are recollected by contemporary Indians. The ancient culture of South Asia, going back at least 4,500 years, has come down to India primarily in the form of religious texts. The artistic heritage, as well as intellectual and philosophical contributions, has always owed much to religious thought and symbolism.

Contacts between India and other cultures have led to the spread of Indian religions throughout the world, resulting in the extensive influence of Indian thought and practice on Southeast and East Asia in ancient times and, more recently, in the diffusion of Indian religions to Europe and North America. Within India, on a day-to-day basis, the vast majority of people engage in ritual actions that are motivated by religious systems that owe much to the past but are continuously evolving. Religion, then, is one of the most important facets of Indian history and contemporary life.

A number of world religions originated in India, and others that started elsewhere found fertile ground for growth there.

The listing of the major belief systems only scratches the surface of the remarkable diversity in Indian religious life. The complex doctrines and institutions of the great traditions, preserved through written documents, are divided into numerous schools of thought, sects, and paths of devotion. In many cases, these divisions stem from the teachings of great masters, who arise continually to lead bands of followers with a new revelation or path to salvation.

India is a land of different religions which are characterised by various religious practices and beliefs. The spiritual land of India has given birth to many religions such as Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism. These religions together form a subgroup and are known as Eastern religions. The people of India have a strong belief in religion as they believe that they add meaning and purpose to their lives. The religions here are not only confined to beliefs but also include ethics, rituals, ceremonies, life philosophies and many more. Today, a wide range of religions are practiced in India.

India is considered the birthplace of some of the world’s major religions. Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism originated in India, and the largest number of people that follow Zoroastrianism and Baha’i faith are found in India, although these religions do not have Indian roots. India has the third largest population of Muslims in the world. Hinduism is considered one of the oldest religions in the world, and there is evidence that it existed during prehistoric times. Islam came to India in the 7th century, but only after the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent did it become a major religion. The exact origins of Christianity in India are unclear, but it was an established religion by the third century AD. The Christian population includes Catholics, Protestants and Oriental Orthodox Christians. Jews arrived in the city of Kochi in 562 BCE, and more followed in the year 70 CE as exiles from Israel. Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism, and he preached universal brotherhood irrespective of caste, color or religion.


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Vergote, Antoine, Religion, belief and unbelief: a psychological study, Leuven University Press, 1997, p. 89

J. Gordon (2003). Encyclopedia of American Religions (Seventh edition). Farmington Hills, Michigan: The Gale Group, Inc., p. 1112. ISBN 0-7876-6384-0

Melton, J. Gordon (2003). Encyclopedia of American Religions (Seventh edition). Farmington Hills, Michigan: The Gale Group, Inc., p. 1001. ISBN 0-7876-6384-0

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Endless diversity in India in customs and traditions.


Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India

There is an endless diversity in India  in customs and traditions. India has been variously described as “the Mini World”, the “epitome of the world” and an “ethnological museum”. The diversity in India is unique. Underneath this diversity lies the continuity of Indian civilization and social structure from the very earliest times until the present day.

India ’s culture has been enriched by successive waves of migration, which were absorbed into the Indian way of life.   The successive waves of migration into India started with the Indo-Greeks (2nd Century B.C.), followed by the Kushans (First century A.D.), the incursions from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian and others beginning in the early 8th century A.D. and culminating with the establishment of the Muslim empire by the 13th century, and finally the advent of Europeans — the Portuguese, the Dutch, the English, the Danes and the French.  These interactions over the years led to introduction of newer elements in India ’s  customs and traditions, thus enriching our cultural heritage.

From the very ancient times India not only absorbed the foreign cultures into its composite fold, but it also managed to spread the rich elements of its own unique culture in different parts of the world.

Each state of India has its own customs and traditions.   There are some festivals, which are typical of particular states, cities or towns like the Bonnalu of Andhra Pradesh, Pushkar of Rajasthan, Rajrani of Orissa, Teej of Rajasthan and Bogali Bihu of Assam .  Each region is also identified with its typical folk and tribal dance forms.



Muggulu is one of the most common tradition followed by the Telugu people where a threshold design is done at the entrance of the house with white rice powder. But now rice powder is slowly getting replaced by lime stone powder and on special occasions coloured powder is added and then it is called as rangoli. There is a traditional belief of the Telugu people that the kolam keeps away evil from the house. Ugadi is the Telugu new year and on this day people mix cow dung with water and sprinkle it on the ground in front of their houses and many other customs and rituals are carried out on this day. Also many new ventures are started on this day.



The traditions and the customs of the people of Arunachal Pradesh are much influenced by their tribal life for the major population of the state is tribes comprising of about 20 to 26 types. As a part of their tradition they mainly worship the nature deities and as their tribal custom they make animal sacrifices as offerings to their god. Jhumming or shifting cultivation is some of the traditional and primitive form of cultivation. Other traditional cultivation practiced by the Adis and Apatanis are wet rice cultivation and Apatanis are also famous for their paddy-cum-pisciculture.The people of this state are specialized over centuries in harvesting two crops of fish along with each crop of the paddy.

The Noctes tribes practice elementary form of Vaishnavism. Every event or occasions and feast like marriages and social gathering are not complete without the singing of the Ja-Jin-Ja special song. It is a must among the boys and girls of the Adi group of tribes to become the members of their respective institutions when they attain the age of ten. After which till the time of the boys’ or the girls’ wedding will have to remain in their respective dormitories. But however there is no restriction among the boys to visit the girls in their Rashbengs and during such visits if they start liking each other and with the parents’ approval marriage takes place following their tribal customs and rituals. Even after the wedding the girl lives with her parents till the birth of her first child, so that in the meanwhile the boy would be able to construct a house to live. In the Adi society descent is traced through the father and the property devolves on the male line and the children belong to the fathers clan.Kebang are those who make important decisions of political and social matters and also settles any disputes among the members of the community. The various kebangs are Bane Kebang, Bango Kebang, Bogum Bokang Kebang and Atek Kebang.



Traditions and customs play a significant role in all the societies of a particular group and they form the base for the same. The customs and traditions are more of beliefs which has been followed by earlier generations which are widely accepted and strictly followed. Thus the Assamese also strictly adhere to such customs and traditions generated by their forefathers pertaining to their community. The Assamese weddings, birth, festivals and even death include various customs and traditions which are supposed to be followed. The Assamese are very much attached to the bamboo culture, especially Jaapi which is more commonly known as the sunshade of Assam. This Jaapi or the bamboos are used by the Assamese to welcome special guests. The Jaapi is mainly made of bamboo strips and a kind of dried palm leaves which is locally known as “Tokow Pat”. Jaapi has a number of varities like Halua Jaapi, Pitha Jaapi, Sorudoiya Jaapi, Bordoiya Jaapi, Cap, etc.In olden days the Assamese used these Jaapi’s for the females of noble and rich families as their headwears.Sometims it is also used in the paddy fields by the peasants as umbrell



Biharis with a rich cultural heritage is blended with major epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana and the state is a land to major religions. The Biharis are noted for their traditional Madhubani paintings. The people are also very good at traditional arts and crafts like hand-painted wall hangings, wooden stools, miniatures in paper and leaves, stone pottery, bamboo, leather goods and applique work. The mud walls of some places like Saharsa, Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Darbhanga, Samastipur, and Bhagalpur are also adorned with Madhubani paintings. The Biharis celebrates the festival of Chaath dedicated to Sun God with major pomp and it usually begins on the fourth day of the month of Kartik Shukhla Paksha which falls either in the month of October or November. The Chaath festival is considered to be very holy among the Biharis and is celebrated for at least four days. Other festivals celebrated by the Biharis are Deepawali, Shravani Mela, Teej, Chitragupta Puja, Makar Sankranti, Saraswati Puja, Holi, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha, Muharram, Kali Puja, Ram Navami, Rakshabandhan, Maha Shivaratri, Durga Puja, Lakshmi Puja, Christmas, Mahavir Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, Guru Purab and Bhai Dooj.



Customs and traditions play a major role in the life of Chhattisgarhi people. The religion of the tribal people is more viewed in the anionic forms of folk-mythical gods and goddesses. The temples here do not have any major architecture but instead are very simple and unadorned where the gods and goddesses are represented by terracotta figurines. These shrines are called as gudi which is mostly built near a stream or in a cave. Danteshwari is one of the most revered goddess of this area, worshipped as the bestower of wishes and protector against evil. The Gonds tribal community of Chhattisgarh has a social institution, Ghotul where the boys and girls of the group are taken into this school to instill the spirit of independence and social responsibility in them. The people of the Gond community consider the Ghotul as their shrine and they believe it to be protected by Lingo Pen, a Gond cult hero. The boys and the girls of this community are called as cheliks and motiaries respectively are taken into a dormitory where they learn the tenets of social, religious and artistic life. The custom followed in a ghotul is co-habitation and marriage. According to this custom once the cheliks and motiaries attain puberty, they are initiated to sex by the older members of the ghotul. After living together and if the couple wish to further decide to get married, then they are required to get married according to their tradition and leave the Ghotul.The people of Chhattisgarh have a traditional custom of hanging strings of neem leaves on their doors to ward of various kinds of diseases during the festival of Hareli.The cultural mosaic of Chhattisgarh is also marked by tribal entertainment like cock fights, tribal dances like Salai, Suwa and Karma. Every occasion here is marked by singing of folk songs by elderly women of a particular tribe. GOA -



The Goan customs and traditions are easily adaptable because of their lifestyle. The flexibility in their customs is mainly due to the fact that the place being reigned by different empires, the customs and traditions have also got a shape according to the beliefs pertaining to that period of time. Thus the people do not really consider the traditional practices too hard. But still there are certain customs and traditions which are very much adhered to like most of the houses built here follow the typical Portugal custom. Not only the old churches but also any new church constructed here follows the typical traditional Portugal style. There are no hard and fast rules to follow a particular religion for they can have the choice of their own but still respect the values of other religions too. This nature of the Goans makes them stand apart from the entire country and so their tradition and customs have truly given a unique identity to the state and made it a role model for others.



Most of the people of Haryana have more or less equal social status. The status factor comes up only with the age which is understood and respected. The elders no matter how poor or rich is given all the due respect in any place whereas the younger as a part of their social custom has to respect the older people even if the junior is very rich or socially placed in a high status. Thus the tradition of the state of Haryana is very socialistic in nature. When it comes to marriage, a boy and a girl of the same gotra are not allowed to marry and the marriage is a must within the same community. A boy and a girl of the same gothra are considered to be brother and sister. If marriages do not take place within the same Jat then it is considered as a great disgrace to the boy or the girl family and is never accepted. Marriage within the same village is also not permitted even if the boy and girl qualify for marriage according to gotra restriction. By following this custom the people are able to maintain racial purity and this factor of limiting within the community helps in promoting good health and prevention of physical degeneration. The people of Haryana do not promote karewa or widow marriage which is a very big obligation among the community




The people of Himachal Pradesh have their customs and traditions pertaining to their communities. The whole village is considered as one single family and the elders of the family are referred by the name Chacha-Tau (uncle), Bhabhi (sister-in-law), Mausi (aunt) or Nani (grandmother) according to their ages. The people value their relationship a lot and treat them with great regards. The Brahmins and the Rajputs very much follow the traditional customs of race, caste, gotra and family and adhere to it. They follow the traditional practice of sending gifts like jewellery and clothes and various other things to the girls’ husband’s house. It is also taboo for the girl’s family members to eat or drink anything in her sasural. They must pay an equivalent sum of money as compensation. This is not practiced in lower caste. The custom of Purdah is strictly followed by the female folk of Himachal Pradesh where they will have to veil their faces in front of all elders. Also once a girl delivers a child she should follow the custom of Pair Bandai where she falls at the feet of elders in the family of her husband and also should place money at their feet. There is also a custom of matchmaking even before a child is born just based on a vague assumption. The polyandrous customs of Kinnaur region also points at the close bond between the brothers. The eldest brother of the family is considered equal to the father. The birth of a girl child is celebrated for they are considered to be as the devi or the goddess of the house and special pujas are offered to the young girls at the time of Navarathri.



There is a special ritual dance named Kud which is performed by all age groups of people in praise of Lok Devatas and this folk dance is ususally performed only during the night times and goes on for the whole night. The background music for this dance uses instruments like Narshingha, chhaina, flute, drums, etc. The Kashmiris living in the area of the Jammu valley celebrate the Lohri festival by performing a traditional theatre form and is known as Heren. Most of the weddings of the Kashmiris are accompanied by a dance known as Fumenie and Jagarana which involves singing and dancing of the female folk depicting the feelings of the girl who is going to leave to her in-laws place. The people belonging to the Gujjar and Bakerwal tribal community perform a traditional singing of songs in chorous and is popularly known as Benthe.




According to the custom of the people of Jharkhand, the ancestors are worshipped asa guardian spirit to the whole community. They follow the practice of placing the bones of the deceased after cremation under the sasandiri which also houses the bones of the ancestors. They are usually put in an earthen pot and kept there from the time of the cremation or burial till the time of the jangtopa ceremony when the actual placing of bones in the sasandiri can take place. Thus once in a year the family members will have to pay a visit to these burial stones to pay homage to their forefathers and ancestors. In earlier days they also had the custom of people belonging to the same community should have the same surname and they all settle down in one common area. But however now this is not followed. Endogamous marriage is normal with the exception of marriage to members of the Santhal, Ho, Kharia and Oraon (Kurukh) communities. When this is not followed they were very badly punished by the community chieftains and also a wedding between a girl and a boy of the same gotra is considered as a crime. But marriage is common between a girl and a boy among the Santhal, Ho and Kharia communities.




The theatre culture is one of the most common traditions among the Kannadigas. The theatre culture is also referred by the name Rangabhoomi. Natakas is also a common tradition among the people of Karnataka where a number of literatures related to epics and puranas are also written in praise of the heroic characters. Another common tradition among the Kannadigas is that in the temples on special occasion or on auspicious days like Dasara and Maha Shivaratri battles, stories, devotions or vratha are sung or narrated by the experts to the public and the devotees. Harikathe also comes as a part of tradition where a person tells a story in an outstanding manner accompanied by music at background and this goes on for the whole night. The Kannadiga weddings are more like the traditional Hindu weddings. The kannadigas very much adhere to the traditions customs and rituals at the time of wedding. There is a traditional practice of worshipping the spirits (generally referred as the Bhootas) mainly by the people of North Karnataka.



The customs and traditions of the people of Madhya Pradesh vary to a great extent from the people of other states.Ghotul is a custom followed by the young boys and girls of the Muria tribe. This custom is mainly followed by the unmarried boys and girls where they all gather in a particular place after sunset. This place has a group of huts where various activities like teaching of moral values, good conduct and discipline takes place. Here education is taught in the form of fun and play way method. This custom of Ghotul has helped the people of Muria tribe to be shaped into a morally good personality. However most commonly the people of Madhya Pradesh follow the traditional customs similar to that of the Hindu rituals whether it matters for marriage, birth or death. Every year there is a fair cum festival known as Bhagoriya conducted, in which people are allowed to choose their spouse. After choosing their spouse and if both the boy and girl are willing to get married then they elope from the house and when they come back, they are accepted as husband and wife.




During Vinayaka Chaturthi the people of Maharashtra follow a number of traditional customs. On the mythical birth anniversary of Lord Ganesha the people create the idols of Ganesha, decorate it and place it on a raised platform. It is a traditional practice to have the idol worshipped for ten days and on the eleventh day the people end the festival by carrying the idol on the streets by singing and dancing and then immerse the statue in the water. The celebration of this festival is an indication of the euphoria of the Maharastrian people. The Mahrashtrians celebrate the festival of Light, Diwali for nearly four days. On these days as a traditional custom the people light lot of diyas with a belief to take away all evil factors from their life.



Kerala fondly known as God’s own country has a wonderful tradition in the history of Malayalis with lot of ethnic values and cultures. Apart from Hinduism, Christianity and Muslims there are also Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and Judaism religions in a very very small proportion. There are some traditional festivals like Onam and Vishu which is followed with great pomp. Apart from these traditional festivals, other festivals like Diwali, Christmas, Milad-e-Sherif, Holi, Easter, Id-ul-Fitr are celebrated with equal enthusiasm. The theatrical shows of Mohiniattam, Kootiyattam and Kathakali reveal their traditional values and also show what great lovers the Malayalis are with art and literature. The people of Kerala very much adhere to their culture and traditional customs and might even go to a great extent to maintain it. They have lot of traditional medicines which is mainly based on herbs and is believed to work wonders. They mostly follow traditional method of homemade remedies in the form of oils, powders and soaps to take care of their bodies.



The people of Manipur mostly live as joint family and they follow the patriarchal pattern of society. The right to inherit the property and the family name is taken by the direct blood relationship. In the patriarchal form of society the father is the head and the mother takes an honorable place. Once the father dies the entire responsibility of the family falls on the eldest son. When it comes to the partition of the property all the sons are entitled to an equal share. The women of the family or the mother sometimes though treated in par with the male cannot stake their claim for a share of paternal property whereas a women after the death of her husband can inherit the husband’s estate. The traditional house of the Bishnupriya Manipuris are called as the Inchau which are mainly constructed on plane lands. Wood and Khapak are mainly used in the construction of the house fenced by a kind of hemp plant. Though there are modern houses coming up but still people beonging to the orthodox Bishnupriyas follow to build their houses with the traditional pattern.





Apart from the religious rituals and ceremonials the people of Bengal or the Bengalis have their own rituals in ceremonies like birth, weddings and even death. The Gaye holud is a part of a custom of the Bengali wedding and it takes place one or two days prior to the occasion. The Gaye holud is also known as the turmeric function during which haldi is applied on the skin of the bride and the groom for it is believed that turmeric cleanses, soften and brighten the skin, giving the bride’s skin the distinctive yellow hue that gives its name to this ceremony. According to Bengalis, the weddings symbolizes purity, sanctity and other good aspects of life. During a wedding ceremony Bengalis do not opt for black colour for it is considered as the colour of evil whereas they prefer hues of red which signifies luck, emotion and fortune. Banana tree is used to decorate the wedding mandaps and the house for banana tree produces huge number of fruits at a time and so also the couple should be blessed with many children. A ritual known as Annaprashan is conducted for the babies when it is five to seven months old. This is just to welcome the baby to eat the normal home-made food after it crosses the stage of eating baby food pattern.



The people of Uttarakhand follow the ancestor spirit worship. They believe that by doing this kind of worship they wake up the Gods and the local deities from their inactive stage to solve their problems and shower their blessings. It is a traditional belief that that by doing this they get divine justice. On such occasions music plays a major role and act as a medium to invoke the Gods. The singer or Jagariya sings a ballad of the gods with allusions to the great epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana and which describes the adventures and exploits of the god being invoked. This is a very common custom prevalent among most of the Hindu people in Uttarakhand. The people are deep rooted in religious faiths and superstitions for any good thing they do, they depend on the astrological forecast of the Brahmins for its auspiciousness. They follow age old customs and traditions for all social functions like new birth, marriage, death, etc. Shiva and Durga are the most important Gods of the people of Uttarakhand and many fairs and festivals are held in regard with the above mentioned Gods. People believe in ghosts, witches, etc., and tantra-mantra are used to cure disease and prevent calamities. Tantra-Mantra plays an important role in some customs which are executed at the places called ‘Shiddhpith’ and on the confluence of two rivers. At such times they sacrifice buffalos, goats and sheep to please the God or Goddess.



The people of Uttar Pradesh follow the ritual or more than that they make it compulsion in one’s life time of taking a dip in the holy water of river Ganga and Yamuna. They believe that by having a bath in this holy water they get purified from all the sins they have committed in their life time. Aarti is another important ritual which is followed in the Ganga ghats. The deities are offered with light from the wicks soaked in purified butter in a very grand manner. Havan is a ritual performed by the people of Hindu community. It involves lightning of holy fire or the Yagna and the belief is that by doing this all evils and ill -wills are thrown apart. It is considered very auspicious among the Hindus to perform a Havan for the prosperity and the good luck before starting of any new work. This puja is conducted by the chief priest and during which lots of mantras are recited. There is also a traditional belief of frog marriages to usher rains in case of delayed monsoons. According to Hindu rituals when the marriage is performed, the Gods are pleased and rainfall takes place within days. They also believe in rolling of children on the grounds so that Indran, God of Rains is pleased and blesses the people with a good shower. They follow the patriarchical system of society or social structure.



Since the people of Tripura belong to a blend of various tribal communities, they follow different customs and traditions. According to the Reang community the marriages are fixed by a matchmaker who is widely known as Andra where he does the initial negotiations between the boy’s and the girl’s family. When the marriage is finalized the guests are served with pork, rice and rice beer. The wedding is performed by the Ochai. Child marriage is not encouraged in this community and also widow marriage can take place only after one year of the death of the husband. The widow and widower are not allowed to participate in any social or religious gathering one year after the death of their spouses. A widow is not allowed to wear any ornaments after the death of her husband. They do not have any dowry system but however the groom has to spend for two years to the father- in -laws’ house before the wedding. At the birth of a child as a matter of thanking the god several pujas are performed for the safe growth of the child and sacrifices are also done to please the god. When a person dies his or her body is first washed with soap and water and then with the water which is got from the cleaning of the raw rice. After which they are dressed up neatly with their traditional attires and in case of a female, a fowl is sacrificed near the feet of the deceased. The body is left the whole night during which the ritual of dance is performed and the mourners are given rice beer to drink. After this the next day morning the body is cremated near a stream. Some of the tribes still cling on to quaint customs like floating colorful parasols in ponds to honour the dead.



Tamilnadu attribute of being a cosmopolitan city, Chennai mirrors confluence of all the diverse cultures nourishing within its boundaries. The residents of the city living in sheer harmony with each other confirm that the varied culture exists, but not at the cost of peace and tranquillity . A number of monuments silently express the glorious history of the city they witnessed, the traditional art forms they preserved and continued to keep it alive. The spirit of  vibrant culture and reminiscent traditions all make the city wonderful and tremendously important as a part of Indian heritage.


People, the power of a nation, come to from all directions making it a major cosmopolitan city in the southern region of India. Having core value system and orthodox beliefs, the residents  are famous for their hospitality and warmth. Their deep rooted beliefs and customs upholding brotherhood, tranquillity and mutual respect drive their daily chores from celebrations to mournful times.

Tamil nadu is home to various religions, each enjoying respect and faith from even the non-followers. From Hindu, Muslims, Christians to Janise, the state has warmly welcomed them all. These people living in harmony increase the magnificence of Chennai manifold. At the end of it, the metropolitan city, Chennai, is a breathing example of perfect confluence of traditional beliefs and modernity in one’s life.

Multiple people, hailing from diverse backgrounds lead to the flow of many languages within the territory of state. Though Tamil enjoys the status of being the prime language iand the mother tongue, popularly articulated by the citizens , however, people belonging to different regions have brought their native languages with them. Other spoken languages here are English, French, Portuguese, Dutch, Telugu, Urdu, Kannada, Bengali, Punjabi and Malayalam



On any religious festival and occasions the monks of the temple cover themselves with masks, ceremonial swords and sparkling jewels dance according to the rhythm of resounding drum and trumpeting of horns. The people of Sikkim who follow the Mahayana form of Buddhism celebrate the festival of Saga Dawa which is supposed to very auspicious. On this particular day the people go the monasteries and worship offering butter lamps. There are also processions arranged by the monks and they go around the town of Gangtok reading and singing the Holy Scriptures. As a matter of offering thanks to Mount Kanchendzonga which is considered to guard the state of Sikkim, the festival of Phang Lhabsol is celebrated with great pomp. Kagyat dance is performed every 28th and 29th day of the Tibetan calendar. The solemn nature of the dances is interspersed with comic relief provided by the jesters. The people of Sikkim especially the Hindu-Nepali celebrate the Dasian festival in the months of September – October which mainly symbolizes the victory of good over evil. Some of the common festivals celebrated by the people living here are Saga Dawa, Losoong, Namsoong, Labab Duchen, Kagyat dance, Yuma- Sam-Manghim, Tendong-lho-Rum- Fat, etc. According to their tradition the festival of lights, Diwali is celebrated on the 10th day after Dasain. The married females of the Bhutia community tie a piece of stripped cloth around their waist called Pangden signifying their marital status.



The customs and traditions followed by the people of Rajasthan are those that pertain to that of the Vedic rites and rituals. The people of Rajasthan very strictly adhere to these traditional customs which is very essential according to every man and woman of Rajasthan. Each and every custom and rituals from birth to death according to the Vedas is followed by the people with just slight variations based on their region and the numerous sub castes. These ceremonies which have to be done as a part of their customs are known as Samskaras which depict the three stages of life namely birth, marriage and death. There are nearly sixteen Samskaras. At the time of a girl’s pregnancy charms are tied around the neck and waist and also to prevent the evil eye falling on her, a knife is put under her pillow every night and is not allowed to go under certain specific tree where the Rajasthani’s believe that spirits reside on those trees. The girl who is pregnant for the first time has to come to her parents well in advance. Festivities start and women assemble to sing songs specially meant for such an occasion, some describing the changing behavior and liking of a pregnant woman.





Blood relationships or the family plays a major role in the customs and traditions of the people of Punjab. Each member of the family has got certain duties or responsibility assigned to them which includes day-to-day life, birth and marriage ceremonies, funerals and other social occasions and they will have to follow it strictly. They mostly live in joint family system. Very rarely a member of the family may live in an adjoining village. But still when it comes to any social or festive occasions, like the initiation and marriage ceremonies or funerals, etc in which they will not miss out their participation. At the time of girls’ wedding a traditional red ivory bangle commonly known as choora is supposed to come as a gift from the maternal uncle and as a custom he has to put the bangles on her forearm. Similarly the maternal grandparents also have to send some gifts to the bride which includes a set of clothes, some jewellery and other household objects. The custom of exchange of gifts is a very traditional practice among the Punjabi’s for they believe this helps to maintain a well knit relationship among friends and family members in the society. This is also a means of patching up with that relationship which has been broken for some reasons. Any social function like the first haircutting, or an initiation ceremony or birth or wedding, it is a more common custom among the relatives to give something in cash or in kind according to his social standing or nearness of relation.



Mostly the people of Odisha including the tribal population follow the traditions pertaining to the Hindus with a small variation depending on the various racial groups they originate from and finally it is displayed as a blend. Mostly all the religious and social ceremonies like wedding, birth and death include singing songs, rural dances along with feasts. The people believe in supernatural beings and they don’t have one standard god or spirit for their belief changes as new ones come their way. These supernatural beings vary from each other by composition, function, character and nature. Some are charitable; some are impartial and some are ill-disposed, to which more importance was given by the people. The main outlook of the tribal people was that of the prediction of the environment for all the ritual activities are based on these natural powers. Any disaster or calamity caused to the people is believed to be due to the curse or malicious act of the Gods or ancestors. At times of religious festivals and fairs, sacrifices of different kinds of livestocks along with rituals are quite common among the people. They believe it is a way to appease the god and spirits. Any decision making is confirmed only after the appeasement of Gods and good omens for the people are extremely superstitious in nature. All their spiritual needs is catered by the functional heads of various communities like in the Saoras community- the priests are divided into three categories namely the Buyya are those who preside over agricultural festivals, offers and sacrifices. The functions of priest, prophet and medicine-man put together are taken care by the Kudan. The sacerdotal head among the Juang is called Nagam or Buita, Pujari or Sisa among the Bondos and Jani among the Kondhs.



The people of Nagaland encourage marriage only outside of a social group. Thus people from the same community do not marry and also in case of any relationship between them then it considered as a social evil. In the Angamis community if a young boy shows a liking towards a girl then he conveys it to his father after which a friend is send to confirm the wishes of the elders. It the parents on the other side also agree then the bridegroom’s father puts the matter further to the test by strangling a fowl and watching the way in which it crosses its legs when dying. If the legs are placed in an inauspicious attitude, the match is immediately broken off. If things go well the marriage is fixed but the girl also has the right to break the marriage even if she has some inauspicious dream.

The people of the Mongsen tribal community follow a strange custom wherein once a boy and girl are engaged they are allowed to go on a trading expedition for twenty days and if it turns out to be profitable then the marriage is fixed whereas if it is a loss then the marriage is broken. Most of the tribal community follow the custom of shaving the girls head until she reaches the marriageable age. The custom to be followed by a boy and a girl before their wedding vary from different communities like in the Angamis community a girl can have a lover before the wedding but they cannot exceed their limit. The people of the Sema community give lot of regard and care for the girls for the only reason that a girl fetches a handsome price at marriage and this price would be substantially reduced if she got involved in a scandal otherwise they end up paying fine.

French scholar Romain Rolland said, “If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India


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Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Se. M. Ed, Ph.D.

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India

( The  riddle  that the seed precedes the tree. or tree precedes the seed)

“My thought is me: that’s why I can’t stop. I exist because I think… and I can’t stop myself from thinking. At this very moment – it’s frightful – if I exist, it is because I am horrified at existing. I am the one who pulls myself from the nothingness to which I aspire.”

― Jean-Paul Sartre, Nausea

Sartre, Kierkegaard and other existentialists believe that existence precedes essence.  Perhaps never before had such a concept been put forth.  Down the ages the contrary belief has been held.  Almost every thought system, every philosophy believes that essence precedes existence.  So it is good to understand it in depth.

It was Plato who said that the surrounding world is a world of essences – ideas, values, ideals, thought etc. and the purpose of life is to discover these essences. Essences are already there and they precede existence. Even existence is an embodiment of an essence – the self, which is a part of an universal essence – the self.

The Theory of Forms ( Theory of Ideas) typically refers to the belief that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an “image” or “copy” of the real world. The forms, ,are archetypes or abstract representations of the many types of things, and properties we feel and see around us, that can only be perceived by reason .In other words, Plato was able to recognize two worlds: the apparent world, which constantly changes, and an unchanging and unseen world of forms, which may be the cause of what is apparent.

Everything has two principles that explains its being, essence and existence. In all beings except for God, these principles are both required in order for the actually existing individual thing to be. Each is distinct from the other, yet this distinction is a real, not merely logical, one.

Essence may be described as the “what” of a thing. It is the quiddity of the thing, that which is known about it by our forming of a concept. It is a formal principle since for material reality, it is abstracted by the human intellect. Hence, it is a universal principle making many material individuals to be of the same kind). But, it is obvious upon reflection that “what a thing is” and “that it is” are completely different statements.

There are, then, two principles; we should say, mind and matter, of which mind is the true reality, the thing of most worth, that to which everything owes its form and essence, the principle of law and order in the universe; while the other element, matter, is secondary, a dull, irrational, recalcitrant force, the unwilling slave of mind, which somehow, but imperfectly, takes on the impress of mind. Form is the active cause, matter is the cooperative cause. It is both friend and foe, an auxiliary and an obstruction, the ground of physical and moral evil, of change and imperfection.

According to Plato the ideas or forms  are not mere thoughts in the minds of men or even in the mind of God  ; he conceives them as existing in and for themselves, they have the character of substantiality, they are substances ,real or substantial forms: the original, eternal transcendent archetypes of things. The particular objects which we perceive are imperfect copies or reflections of these eternal patterns. Men may come and men may go, but the man-type, the human race, goes on forever.

The principle, of the Platonic ” matter,” forms the basis of the phenomenal world; as such it is the raw material upon which the forms are somehow impressed. It is perishable and unreal, imperfect, non-being whatever reality, form, or beauty the perceived world has, it owes to ideas. Some interpreters of Plato conceive this Platonic ‘ ‘ matter ‘ ‘ as space ; others as a formless, space-filling mass.

The dispute over essence and existence has a long and storied history in the Middle Ages. For medieval thinkers these concepts form the backbone of nearly every other metaphysical concern they have. The scholastic tradition looks to Boethius and Avicenna to go beyond an Aristotelian system that sees little need to make a distinction between essence and existence. Through the writings and disputes of Thomas Aquinas, Giles of Rome, and Henry of Ghent among others, a highly sophisticated debate took form about the nature of this distinction: whether it is real, rational, or somewhere in between. Amid the highly technical debates ranging from Boethius to Suarez, medieval thinkers knew that it was in the precise and technical formulation of the relationship between essence and existence that such critical issues were to be decided.

All  schools of philosophy that were born  before Sartre and other existentialists believes that the seed precedes the tree. And it seems logical  and  natural . But Sartre says  tree  precedes the seed. By and large, every  thought-system says that essence precedes existence;  without essence or soul , existence is not possible. But Sartre   asserts that existence comes first and essence later .HE BELIEVES THAT IN THE ABSENCE OF EXISTENCE ESSENCE CAN NOT BE MANIFESTED.

Existentialism is a revolt against any kind of determinism and an affirmation of the free nature of man. They affirm that existence is prior to essence that man is fundamentally free to create his essences. As Sartre himself explains his concept to us, “what is meant here by saying that, ‘existence precedes  essence ? “It means that, first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and only afterwards defines himself. It mean, as the existentialist sees him is indefinable; it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterwards will be something and he himself will have made what he will be…”

Jean Paul Sartre’s classic formulation of existentialism–that “existence precedes essence”–means that there exists no universal, inborn human nature. We are born and exist, and then we ourselves freely determine our essence. Some philosophers commonly associated with the existentialist tradition never fully adopted the “existence precedes essence” principle.

Sartre maintains that man can never comprehend the true meaning of his own existence unless he presupposes there is no God. For when we being with the premise that there is God, then we must conclude that man possesses an essence which precedes personal existence

Thus Sartre rejects classical atheism which suppresses the idea of God but retains the notion that men possess a common, rational mature or essence. This position, Sartre believes, is inconsistent with atheism because it retains all the significant elements of theism and refuses to accept the individual responsibility for self-creation which all true atheism implies.

The very question of the nature of man is a meaningless one for the existentialist. In both of the sections above it was emphasized that man has no “nature” as such but rather that he must create his own essence. Man is nothing more than what he makes or himself. Perhaps, then, it might be more accurate to speak of certain characteristics, state, or conditions which man creates for himself or into which he is thrown.

Atheistic existentialism…states that if God does not exist, there is at least one being in whom existence precedes essence, a being who exists before he can be defined by any concept and that this being is man, or, as Heidegger says, human reality. What is meant here by saying that existence precedes essence? It means that, first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and, only afterwards, defines himself.

Philosophical Proof from St. Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica

Basic Argument:

             Whatever a thing has besides its essence must be caused by the constituent principles of that essence or by some exterior agent.

             Consider a created thing. It is impossible for a created thing’s existence to be caused by its essential constituent principles because nothing can be the sufficient cause of its own existence if its existence is caused.

Therefore, a created thing has its existence different from its essence.

             God is the first efficient cause.

As the first efficient cause, anything God has cannot be due to an exterior agent. C3. God’s essence is identical to his existence.

Secondary Argument:

             Existence is that which makes every form or nature actual. Existence is actuality as opposed to potentiality.

             There is no potentiality in God; only actuality.

             God is his essence.

Since God is actuality his essence is existence.

In fact, all philosophical quarrels are childish. Even the biggest philosophical battles have been fought over a problem which can be summed up in a child’s question: “Which comes first, the chicken or the egg?” It is really around this small question that all the great battles between philosophers have taken place. Those who raise this question are stupid, and those answering it are  even more stupid.

But those who know will say the chicken and egg are not two. What is an egg but a chicken in the making? And what is a chicken but an egg fulfilled, come to its fullness? Egg and chicken hide each other in themselves. The question of who precedes who is the meaningful is egg and chicken are two separate things. The truth is that they are the same. Or we can say that they are the two ways of looking at the same thing. Or they are two different phases, tow states of manifestation of the same thing. Similarly, seed and tree and not separate. Neither are light and dark. Nor are  birth and death. They are two of looking at the same thing. Maybe, because we don’t know how to see a thing rightly, we see it in fragments.

We can now say that at some unseen level of their existence the egg and the chicken happen simultaneously, but it is not visible with our necked eyes.

It is something in our way of looking at things that the egg is seen first and the chicken afterwards. If we have the eyes to look the things in their totality it is not difficult to see them simultaneously. But the way we are, we will say it is something impossible; it defies our reason and logic.

Through the example of quanta physics,  an insight can be develop through scientific logic.

Within the field of physics, energy and matter, natural forces are studied and observed. During the early 1900s, this field began to look at the subatomic particles that make up the physical world. Up until this time, energy was considered to be made up of waves that followed a flow

This theory takes into account the interrelationships that exist between waves and particles–or energy and matter.

Further exploration into the quantum realm reveals the same concepts are at work when solid materials are examined. The electrons contained within a material’s atomic structure were once considered particle-type entities that maintained their form as they circled an atom’s nucleus. A closer examination revealed the electron to be moving in and out of a wave-particle state as it circled the nucleus. These waves and particles appear according to a certain frequency and wavelength that vary according to the type of element being studied . When observed at this level, particles and waves are found to be interchangeable forms that transition on a continual basis

There is a great difference between a particle and a wave. It they called the electron a particle, it could not be a wave. If they called it a wave, it can not be a particle. Quanta means that which is both a particle and a wave simultaneously. This  quanta is a mysterious phenomenon; it is both a particle and a wave, an egg and chicken together..

Actually existence and essence are two ways of looking at the same thing. Because of our limited perception, we divide the same thing into fragments. In fact, essence is existence and existence is essence. They are not two separate phenomenons. So it is wrong to say that essence has existence or that God has existence, because then it means God and existence are separate. No, if we understand it rightly we should say ; God is existence,

It is utterly wrong to say that God exists. We say a flower exists because tomorrow this flower cease to exist. But will God ever cease to exist? If so then he is not God. One who will never cease to exist cannot be said to have existence We can say that we exist , because we will certainly cease to exist  somewhere in future .But it is an error of language to say that God exists, because he is ever and ever and ever. It is utterly wrong to say God exists; the right way to say it is: God is existence.

But language always put us in difficulty; it is in the very nature of language, In fact , even the phrase ; God is existence; is erroneous, because the word ; is ; between God and existence creates a schism and confusion. It on one side is God and on the other is existence and the two are related by the word; is; This word really divide God into two – he and existence – which is again wrong. So even the word ;is; has to go . We had better say God means is-ness, God, means being, God means existence. The word ‘is ‘is also a repetition; it is repetition to say God is. ; Is; means God ; is-ness is God or God is  is-ness. That which is, is God. But language has its own limitations; it is created for the dualistic world.

Words are but symbols for the relations of things to one another and to us; nowhere do they touch upon absolute truth….Through words and concepts we shall never reach beyond the wall off relations, to some sort of fabulous primal ground of things, -Nietzsche, Philosophy in the Tragic Age of The Greeks .p.83

This is the reason that one who knows wants to keep away from the trap of words and remains completely silent. The moment he says something, he at once separates himself from what he says; what he says becomes an object. But, in fact, he who says and what he says are one. Under the circumstances, there is no better way than to keep quiet.

“What is meant here by saying that existence precedes essence? It means first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and, only afterwards, defines himself. If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be.”

― Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism Is a Humanism


Ayer, A. J. (1990). The Meaning of Life and Other Essays. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh .(1985) Krishna,The Man and His Philosophy ,Rajneesh Foundation International. Oregon.  U.S.A

Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of Meaning. Cambridge, Massachusetts & London: Harvard University Press.

Cooper, D. E. (1999). Existentialism: A reconstruction. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

Gilliat, P. (1996). Spiritual education and public policy 1944-1994. In R. Best (Ed.), Education, spirituality and the whole child (pp. 161-172). London: Cassell.

Heidegger, M. (1996). Being and Time (Joan Stambaugh, Trans.). Albany: State University of New York Press.



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Indian Arts & Handicrafts- Unique in their style

Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D.

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India

The great German Indologist Max Muller said: “If I were to look over the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power and beauty that nature can bestow – in some parts a very paradise on earth – I should point to India . If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed the choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solution of some of them, which well deserve the attention even of those who have studied Plato and Kant – I should point to India.”

The story of Indian Arts & Handicrafts comes from one the oldest civilizations of the world. The vast cultural and ethnic diversity has enabled a variety of motifs, techniques and crafts to flourish on this land. Born of centuries old craftsmanship, the history varies designs and motifs that have fascinated the people the world over. Unique in their style reflects the mood in Indian heritage


The Telugu people are patrons of arts and crafts and they are pioneers in the field of metal ware, carpets, wood and stone carving, exquisite silver filigree, brass and sheet metalware. Kalamkari, Bidri, Nirmal paintings, fascinating weaves from Pochampalli, Gadwal, Venkatagiri and a number of other centres have earned a name all over the world. Kalamkari is supposed to be famous worldwide which is done using a quill and printing is done on the fabric with vegetable dye. The Bathik print which is done using wax and prints are made on the fabrics. Bathik prints are used to print in sarees, dress materials and also on wall hangings. Another traditional craft practiced by the Telugu people is the Cherial Scroll paintings done on cloth using earthen colours.


Handloom forms an integral part of the culture and tradition, which is reflected in the State’s apparels. Some of these are unique Handloom products in artists weaving and design. Most of the Women folk of the state have been engaged in Handloom sector  treated as primary occupation. A wide variety of crafts such as weaving painting, pottery, smithy work, basketry, woodcarving etc. are found among the people of Arunachal Pradesh.       Bamboo and Cane handicrafts produced in Arunachal Pradesh.

The unique, and artistic indigenous wood carving articles are available of Tirap, Upper & West Siang, Lohit and Tawang.   Traditional Male and Female Wooden figure are depicted as main subject, warriors / head hunters are popular in Tirap District .

Beads ornaments of various types are found in all over Arunachal Pradesh .All type of ornaments viz. Necklace Wrist band, Waist band , Head gear, earring are made with beautiful geometrical pattern used both by male and female.”GRASS NECKLACE” making practiced by female folk of Wangcho tribe of Tirap District. Practiced by women folk of Wangcho tribe of Tirap District. Major raw material is cotton yarn and acrylic yarn purchased from market, combinedly wooven in a colourful geometrical pattern.The traditional Cane Bamboo product are mainly available in the Districts of East Kameng. Papumpare, Changlang, Upper and Lower Subansiri, East and West Siang, Lohit and Dibang Valley which represents high premium on design, quality, local technology and focus cultural indentity.

The carpet making is one of the important occupation in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng, Changlang, Upper Siang. The women folk are engaged in this trade

Tangkha painting in one of the most artistic craft, it is prevalent mainly in Buddhist dominated area like Tawang, West kameng, Upper Siang Districts. The motif of the painting is mostly religious subject along with traditional value.


Assamese are known for their traditional crafts which includes Bell and brass metal crafts. Apart from these the Assamese are also noted for their Cane and bamboo craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, musical instruments making, etc. They also excel in ivory crafts, colours and paints, articles of lac, agarwood products and traditional building materials. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful color combinations.


One of the art forms of Bihar, the Madhubani School of Painting, has lately received much attention and poularity. There are quite a few websites devoted to Madhubani painting. Hence their effort will not be duplicated here. Rather, the viewer is encouraged to visit one very scholarly of these sites.

Mention must be made of the Patna School of Painting or the Patna Qalaam, which sadly does not exist any more. This offshoot of the well-know Mughal Miniature School of Painting flourished in Bihar during early 18th to mid 20th century. This was not just an artistic expansion, but was indeed a shrewd move! It not only enriched the style of painting, but also brought commercial success among the common citizens including British officers and their wives.  It is, of course, not the purpose of this short narrative to give a detailed account of this lovely and distinct art form that flourished in Bihar for almost two centuries.

The artisans of Bihar have been very skilful in creatings articles from local materials. Baskets, cups and saucers made from bamboo-strips or cane reed are painted in vivid colors are common articles found in Bihari homes. A special container woven out of sikki grass in the north, the “pauti”,pauti and other containers.jpg (87637 bytes) is a sentimental gift that accompanies a bride when she leaves her home after her wedding. Indeed, for the bride, next to the wooden container for “sindoor” (=vermillion), namely, the “sinhora”, this is a precious gift  that she treasures for her entire life.

Bhagalpur [to map] is well known for its seri-culture, manufacture of silk yarn and weaving them into lovely products.  This silk is of a distinct and special type. It is known as the tussah or tusser silk.


Chhattisgarh is known for “Kosa silk” and “lost wax art”. The tribals of Chhattisgarh do intrinsic work to make toran, place mats and boxes with the help of shells, mirrors and fabric. The fibre which is got from the seeds of the marshes with a beautiful ivory colour is used in making potholders, mats, hammocks, bags and dolls. Since Chhattisgarh in abundant in bamboo the people are involved in building houses, bows and arrows, baskets, fish and bird traps and a lot of agricultural tools. Chhattisgarh is also known for its handloom product, Dhruva patta or the Dhruva Sari.


The art and craft of Goa, like its culture has come out of a blend of Indo-Portuguese art forms.

While pottery is art of traditional form made with earthen clay, terracotta is ceramic clay. These are the traditional crafts forms of Goa. Utility cum decorative items are made out of these such as flower garden pots, pen holders, ashtrays, bowls, statues of saints and goddesses. They also draw inspiration from religious or historical themes. Borde and Bicholim are two famous centres of earthenware, though pottery is made all over Goa.

Brass items are very famous with samais. Its used mainly for casting decorative items like oil lamps, church bells, candle stands, ashtrays and temple towers etc.

Wood turning is a form of woodcarving that is used to create wooden objects (e.g. a bowl or a table leg) on a lathe using cutting tools.

The importance of crochet in Goa can be realized by the fact that every bride brings her crochet and embroidery work as dowry which is then displayed to demonstrate her expertise in the craft. Crochet and embroidery in Goa is inherent to every household where it is passed from one generation to another.

Bamboo craft initially was more of a utility based thing where in ‘mahras’, a scheduled community made items required by farmers and fishermen. They made things to store food grains, sell fish.


Panipat, a major textile town in Haryana is noted for its rugs and upholstery fabric. Other handicrafts of the people of Haryana include woven furniture, artistic pottery and woodcarving. The furniture produced by the people are quite famous and they are woven furniture – modhas (round stools) and chairs made of sarkande (a reed) from Faroukhnagar; and pidhis from Sonepat, which are essentially wooden stools with seats woven in cotton thread or sutli.


The people of Himachal Pradesh are known for their wooden crafts because the region has abundance of trees like Pine, Cedrus deodar, walnut, horse chestnut and wild black mulberry which are used for craft work and carvings of doors, windows, balcony panels, etc.They are also known for metal craft. Antique metal statuettes are one of the most significant aspects in many temples of Himachal Pradesh. The statues of gods and goddesses also appear as mohras or in metal plaques. Household utensils are made using brass which is very famous. They are also involved in making things from bamboo items like boxes, sofas, chairs, baskets and rack. Pashmina shawl and the colourful Himalayan caps are in demand in overseas also.


The Kashmiris are known for their handicrafts. The Kashmiri carpets and shawls are famous across the world. Carpets are usually hand knotted and is either made of silk or wool with lots of Persian influence on it bearing floral designs. The namdas or the woollen rugs are designed by colorful chain stitch embroidery which is weaved by wool and cotton fibres.Other handicraft item made by the Kashmiris include basketry, carved wooden furniture made from walnut wood and beaten silver and copper ware. The Kashmiri shawls usually made of cashmere wool or the soft Pashmina wool or the shahtoosh are very expensive and worldwide famous.


The state of Jharkhand is known for its Art, Craft and Culture. Various generations of communities, who inhabited the land since ages, dreamt about, shaped and polished the cultural sky of the state.

The impression on the region’s culture Jharkhand has been made by over 32 tribal groups including Asurs, Santhals, Banjara, Bihor, Chero, Gond, Ho, Khond, Lohra, Mai Pahariya, Munda, Oraon, Kol or Kawar. This total covers over 28% of the total population of the state. You can also easily observe the cross-cultural influences of local nontribal communities and the followers of Buddhism and Jainism, Mughal rule and the reign Hindu emperors of Bengal .

The oldest cave paintings in India – ‘scroll paintings’ – have been attributed to a Jharkhand tribe by the art historians. This tribe is referred as Shabars, which is now living on the edge of extinction. According to an established fact, Stone Age tools discovered in Hazaribagh District and axes and spearheads found in the Chaibasa Area of the state are remains of a civilization that dates back some thousand years. In the state, you can find in abundance the 10,000 to 30,000 years old rock paintings, paintings in huge caves in the Sati hills and other indicators of ancient, even pre-historic, human settlements


Bhootha Aradhane, Harige, Naga Nrutya and Vatte Kola- No less interesting is the Bhootha Aradhane or devil worship, very common in the coastal towns of Karnataka. Doll making is another craft famous in Karnataka evenly arranged on wooden platforms, decorated and displayed during the nine day DussheraThe worship of spirits-the bhuta cult-in the coastal districts has confident the making of huge wooden idols, some of which are kept outside villages as guardians of the inhabitants.Ivory Carving- Ivory carving is another well-liked craft prevailing in the entire state. The story of Karnataka’s arts and crafts is never comprehensive without a reference to the traditional Mysore paintings.

Metal Ware- Bidar in Karnataka, is a famous for bidriware-a craft done on a metal plate of zinc, copper, tin and lead.

Sandal wood is native to the deciduous forests of Karnataka. Intricate carving in sandal wood has been practiced in Karnataka for over 1000 years. Shilpis the stone carvers of Karnataka are supreme of all, they had won the master crafts-man awards at the national level


Utility and ornamental objects deftly whittled from bamboo and cane, by people belonging to the Baiga, Gond, and Korku tribal communities of the region, are very popular. Traditional floor coverings of Madhya Pradesh include durries and carpets. Durries are thick cotton fabrics knitted in a variety of designs, with bold patterns.The wall paintings of Bundelkhand, Gondwana, Nimar and Malwa constitute a major chunk of the folk paintings of Madhya Pradesh., Lipai paintings and Pithora paintings are splendid examples of folk paintings of the region.Iron crafting is a traditional skill that the craftsmen in the remote villages of Madhya Pradesh have mastered formany generations. Iron ore extracted from local mines are molded into desired shapes. The ingenious metal artisanship of the craftsmen of Madhya Pradesh is legendary. Inventive designs are curved into metals and shaped into boxes, figurines & ornamental statuettes.

The versatility of jute comes alive in the traditional handicrafts of Madhya Pradesh. The rugged and unfinished texture of the fiber has its unique charm.Ornaments from gold, silver, bronze to alloys, the tribal people here make use of various metals to adorn themselves. The beauty of papier mache is demonstrated through ornate items like birds, animals, statues and vases. Ujjain, being the major center of this traditional art, makes use of natural colors to simulate and create immaculate replicas of living birds. The temples of Vidisha and Khajuraho and the monuments of Orchha and Gwalior are living examples of the imaginative and individualistic architectural magnificence of artisans here. Gwalior is renowned for latticework, while Jabalpur & Tikamgarh are famous for decorative pieces.Generally, terracotta artifacts are available in a variety of colors like red, pink, brown and grey. In some places, like Sarguja, Raipur and Rajgarh, exquisite terracotta tiles adorn the roofs of various homes.Various forms of printing include Block printing, Nandana printing, Bagh printing, Bandhani printing and Batik printing. Apart from excellence in the field of printing.Woodcraft items include toys, boxes, bedposts, flower vases, wall hangings, candle stands and the like. Embellished wooden ceilings, doors and window frames form popular items of home décor.Though the origin of zari work date back to about 300 years, it still preserves its inherent and exquisite charm. Earlier, used to embellish traditional items, zari work today finds a niche in the contemporary market.


The fine fabrics of mashru and himroo are the clear examples of their highest level of weaving art.

Bidriware is another well-appreciated craft of this state. It takes lots of skills and time in preparation. The district of Kolhapur gives two most famous things – jewellery and Kolhapuri chappals. Kolhapuri chappals are known for its quality, comfortability and low price. Then come the paintings of warli tribes of Mumbai.

The expertise of the artisans of Maharashtra can be seen in the fine art and craft finishes. The fine fabrics of mashru and himroo are the clear examples of their highest level of weaving art.Hand-made leather chappals and sandals of Kolhapur district of Maharashtra are world famousKolhapur is famous for its special type of necklace called Kolhapur saaj. This jewellery is very much special for Maharashtrian women. Narayan Peth saree is very much popular in and around Sholapur district of Maharashtra. Paithani saree took its name from a place called Paithan, where it started producing 2000 years ago. This saree is made of silk with an ornamented zari pallav and border. Warli paintings are the tribal wall paintings of the warli tribes of Maharashtra. Warlis are the largest tribes of Maharashtra live in northern outskirts of Mumbai


Kerala and the keralites are known for Ayurveda and ite related medicines. Today, it is a unique, indispensable branch of medicine, a complete naturalistic system that depends on the diagnosis of your body’s humours, vata, pitta and kapha – to achieve the right balance. Kerala is also known as the Land of Ayurveda. The people of Kerala are known for their handicraft items especially the carvings in rosewood and sandalwood. Kerala also gets a unique identity of colouring or painting the body parts with henna and related colours.


The Manipuris are known for their arts and culture. The rich culture and tradition of the Manipuris are also depicted in their handloom clothes and handicrafts. The Manipuri handloom and handicraft are world famous for its craftsmanship as well as ingenuity, colorfulness and usefulness. The people are known for their world famous renowned Manipuri style of dancing. The Manipuri style of dance whether be it folk, classical, modern or devotional is quite distinct from other Indian dance forms. They have a graceful rhythm and the dance being highly artistic and aesthetic is even more captivating with their exotic costumes. The Manipuri saris, bed sheets, tribal shawls, dance doll, cane and bamboo work, wood carving, mats made of water reed and curtains are very famous across the country. Some of the most popular dances of the Manipuri are Khamba Thoibi Dance, Pung Cholom, Maibi Dance, Nupa Pala and Ras Lila.


Alpana Floor Drawings are related to ancient magic cults. These drawings are also used for decorative purpose, in the modern times.In West Bengal, Chikankari is an embroidery work which is practiced. It is done by using white cotton thread on fine white muslin. Fabri  Dhokra Craft indicates variety of beautifully shaped and decorated brassware products created by the lost wax process. Dolls are used by children and for decorative purposes and made with small cloth, cotton & wool. Root from a Japanese influence, this craft has lately gained immense popularity in Bengal.Bengal is a major producer of jute goods ranging from pllush jute-blended carpets, to decorative tapestries, garden pot hangings, decorative hand bags, bedspreads etc.

In Kalighat Paintings, the artists originally set up their practice, around Kalighat Temple in Kolkata on the banks of the Hooghly.In Bengal, masks actually represent the theatrical tradition are used by the Chhou dancers of Purulia and those who perform the Gambhira dances of Malda.

In various colors such as red, orange, brown, black and cream, Handmade pottery mainly consisted of different types of bowls, jars, vessels, etc. In West Bengal, Wood is widely used for making toys and decorative panels. Image made in wood relate back to traditional icons, deities some of them stylised to a modern look


Though the state features a wide range of artistic activities, one craft that is most popular is wood carving. Apart from wood carvings, other key forms of craft in the state include painting, jewelry making, candle making etc.

Uttarakhand has numerous temples where you can explore the artistry in wood carvings. The Devalgarh Temple, The Temple of Srinagar-Garhwal and the Devi Madin are some of the prominent places where you can see some excellent examples of wood carvings.

Uttaranchal or specifically, Garhwal is home to one of the most beautiful and defining ‘Gharanas’ of miniature paintings known as “The Garhwal School of Painting. Temple architecture in any part of India has always been patronized by the kings and people ruling there as a way to leave an imprint on the pages of histor. The rulers of ancient time built some of the intricately carved and exquisite places of worship. Murals, in the form of wall paintings or Aipan, are a window to the cultural richness of the state. Murals also have a lot of religious significance. The fine arts of Uttaranchal are decidedly geometric with a natural grace and simplified complexity. Rangoli, a traditional Indian art displayed in front of the house, makes up a sacred and age-old practice. Aipan is one of the conventional forms of Uttarakhand rangoli, mainly practiced in the state of Uttarakhand. The art has cultural as well as religious implication in the life of the people


The Stone Craft of Uttar Pradesh has flourished due to the Muslim rulers of the state especially Mughals. The Taj Mahal in Agra is an excellent example of this craft. The other main cities include Agra, Varanasi and Fatehpur Sikri.Thin marble slabs/stones are etched for hours to give them a meaningful shape and design. Intricate carvings are made by hour long chiselling. Pottery is popular throughout the state. However, potters of Meerut, Khurja and  Hapur are more skilled in it. In fact, the history of Khurja pottery is nearly 600years old. Surahi, a vessel with long neck is the most popular item created through pottery. It is used in summers to keep the water cool. Similarly  wood carving work at Saharanpur is famous world wide.

Chikankari or chikan work is synonymous to the city Lucknow. It is basically skilful embroidery done on fabric using white thread.There are two main types of Chikan embroidery- flat and embossed. Flat embroidery involves simple sewing sans any loops or knots in threads. Bukhia and Katawa are the two famous styles under flat embroidery. Bukhia embroidery is basically stitches made in v-shape while Katawa includes motifs cut from same fabric on which it is stitched to give an opaque appearance.

Zari or Zardosi embroidery is famous in Varanasi. Rich golden threads are used to create beautiful designs and patterns on saris and other dress materials. Banarasi sarees are famous for their zari work. The traditional thread work is done using real thread of gold and silver which makes the fabric expensive. Beads and stones are the other embellishments used in stitching..Firozabad is famous for glassware especially the colourful glass bangles. Huge machines are used to create items like utensils, pots and myriad of toys. ‘Firozabad’ is also called as the ‘City of bangles’.

Carpet weaving is another most famous handicraft practised in. Bhadohi city.It is one of the oldest craft in the country. Farrukhabad city is lauded for it. Traditional patterns like butis (polka dots) and the ‘tree of life’ are made by hands on this fabric. ‘Paisley pattern’ also famed as ‘Mango’ or ‘Persian pickles’ are the droplet shaped motif created using the butis


Handloom is the prime craft of Tripura. Intricately designed handlooms and silk, cane and bamboo works are the main form of art and craft industries. The obvious feature of Tripura handloom is vertical and horizontal stripes with distributed embroidery in multiple colours. Handlooms. Cane and bamboo craft of Tripura is also globally accepted. Simple materials such as bamboo, cane, palm leaves and ordinary yarn are used to create a fascinating variety of handiwork. Popular handicraft items are bamboo screens, lamp stands, tablemats, sitalpati, woodcarving, silver ornaments and other crafts that are practiced. One can also find simple work of brass and bell metal articles in Tripura. Furniture, toys, objects of daily utility such as lamp shades, baskets, calendars, ivory work and Tripuran tribal jewellery, make shopping here a delightful experience.


The Tanjore paintings are a hallmark of India’s rich cultural legacy. Painted in vibrant shades embellishedin colorful semi-precious stones, pearls, glass pieces and gold, they form some of the world’s masterpieces done on surfaces of wood, mica or ivory. The paintings also adorn the ornate pillars, elaborately decorated canopies and garlands of ropes and chandeliers.Tamil Nadu, the center of South India’s cultural extravaganza had exhibited a distinctive brilliance in its stone carvings during the commencement days of ancient Indian history.

Among the relics of Tamil Nadu’s stone carvings that have been excavated from archeological sites, the granite figurines and statuettes deserve special mention. Contemporary granite carving is confined mainly around Mamallapuram and Chingleput, with the leading sculptors hailing from the local Vishwakarma or Kammaalar communities.

Woodcraft is a burgeoning revenue generating industry in Tamil Nadu.Tamil Nadu’s basket and fiber products are aesthetically appealing and very much in vogue all over the country and abroad. Palm trees along with bamboo shoots, cane, grass and reeds form a major ingredient of Tamil Nadu’s wood works and relate basket products. Besides the wooden barks, the coconut fibers are used to make common utility products like baskets, ropes, mats and other miscellaneous items.

Tamil Nadu abounds in cultural splendor that is manifested in its efflorescent art and culture. No woman’s trousseau is complete without a dash of sparkling jewelry. In ancient Tamil Nadu, diamonds and other precious stones were a man and woman’s best friend alike.

The art and culture of Tamil Nadu flourished under the benefaction of the ancient monarchs who were lovers of art and patronized the ancient craftsmen. Music and dance dominate Tamil Nadu’s cultural scenario. A natural ramification of this led to the establishment of musical instrument making shops and industries. A vast majority of these centers are situated around Thanjavur.Archeologists have excavated relics of South Indian pottery. They are mainly made of terracotta moulds painted in a rich brown color. The ancient pottery reflects the country’s legacy as well as the sophistication and cultural refinement of the ancient people.


People of Sikkim seem to be born with exceptional skill required for craft making. You will find some of the most beautiful woolen items like woven woolen carpets and woolen blankets along with other items like Sikkimese motifs, and table called Choktse. From ages, craft items of Sikkim have generated a lot of market in India Development has definitely taken place in Sikkim, but the people of Sikkim prefer the olden ways as it more cheap, better quality and way more rewardingWoolen Carpets

Woolen Carpets are without a doubt the most famous offering to come out of Sikkim. It is also probably the oldest form of carpet weaving in the world. Floral motifs are also quite popular among the people here. You will also see styles taken from Buddhist Iconography and geometrical patterns.

The best place to witness the skill of Sikkimese people in wood carving are the many monasteries in Sikkim. From top to bottom, there is lavish use of carved wood in these monasteries. The wood in the monasteries are engrossed with symbols and icons from Buddhism. Another well known wooden product from Sikkim that is famous all over India is Choktse tables. Thangka Paintings were and still are an item of reverence among the people of Sikkim. There are generally three types of thangkas all of which are spiritual in natureThangkas are generally made on cotton canvas with vegetable dyes as colors. Earlier, thangkas were made only by monks and priests. People of Sikkim save a lot on wool and money by designing the old and used woolen blanket into bags, shawls, jackets and many dolls. You will be amazed to see the fashion that young generation of Sikkim sport. Not only are they up to date with fashion industry, you can spot some uniquely fashionable clothings. Government has opened some cottage industries in the state to promote and help people grow in hand looms


Rajasthan is among the richest states in the country so far as the field of arts and crafts in concerned. May be it was a result of the war-like lifestyle of the people of Rajasthan which sharpened the creative senses, artistic skills and inspired them to create the most opulent and richest of treasures. Stone, clay, leather, wood, ivory, lac, glass, brass, silver, gold and textiles were given the most brilliant forms.

Today, Rajasthan has earned a immense popularity, due to its rich handicrafts, which is also a striking part of the Rajasthan culture.History of Rajasthan reveals that the kings and their nobles were patrons of arts and crafts they encouraged their craftsman in activities ranging from wood and marvel carving to weaving, pottery and painting. The horses and elephants that took the warriors to battles received the same care jewelled saddles and intricate silver jewellery was just some of the ornaments that were used to adorn them.

For women there was infinite variety tie and dye fabrics, embroidered garments, enamel jewellery inlayed with precious and semi-precious stones, leather jootis. They put their lives indoors to very good use by decorating their surroundings on the walls of their mud-huts were painted geometric designs as well as simple motifs like flowers and birds. Also the women-folk made intricate patterns on floors, shaped straw and twine to turn into the most beautiful as well as functional items plus delayed great talents with the needle and thread and papier mache.

Meenakari art prospered over the years and is today renowed the world over. Jaipur meenakari is famed for its delicacy and its use of colours. Pratapgarh and Nathdwara are two other centres which produce fine quality enamel work.

Rajasthan is rich in jewellery, each area having its own unique style. Some of the traditional designs are rakhri, timaniyan, bala, bajuband, gajra, gokhru, jod, etc. Tribal women wear heavy, simply, crafted jewellery and seem to carry the weight (almost up to 5 kgs ) without much discomfort almost all the time. Men too wear their share of ornaments in the form of chockers and earrings.The ivory bangles that most Rajasthani women wear are considered auspicious. Ivory is also inlaid and shaped into intricate items of great beauty. Miniature paintings were also executed on ivory. Lac bangles are made in bright colours and sometimes inlaid with glass

Sandalwood and Wood, Carved wood is presented in a wide range of objects and is simple and inexpensive.

Statues on religious themes are carved all over Rajasthan and in several cities there are still entire lanes where the stone carvers can be seen giving final touches to statues or even pillars.

Hand-block Prints hued in the vegetable colours, the floral beauty of hand-blocks prints are of world wide fame.Lacquer and filigree work of Lac jewellery and bangles much famous in all over India.

Rajasthani Mehandi decoration, once dominated the fashion market of the world in the late 1990s. These multi-hued dazzling clothes have been captivating the heart of the entire world for centuries. Exquisite miniature effigies are still keeping the age-old heritage of terracotta tradition alive. Puppets made of wood and cotton is the finest art of Rajasthan. Excellent artifacts made of Jaipur marbles are famous world wide. Spectacular miniature paintings of Rajasthan are renowned world over. Deft needlework studded with mirror in bright colours is the specialty of Rajasthani embroidery. Shekhawati is famous for its bright wall painting making it a popular tourist destination.


Arts & Crafts of PunjabPunjab has a rich tradition of arts and crafts. The richness of the land is reflected in its handicraft. The people of Punjab lay much importance on their artistry and the minute details of their work.

Metalwork is also very popular in Punjab. Utensils made of metals are used in households, as also for religious purposes. Carpenters in the state make Peeras or Peerians, decorative boxes, pidhis and toys of wood, which are very popular in the whole of North India. Thin straws of glass are used for basketry works, which is another Punjabi craft that is immensely popular. Mats, rugs, carpets, curtains and hand fans are woven using these straws. Embroidery is another extensively followed work of art, known in the state by various local names. Phulkari, an intricate needle work, is extremely popular and is mainly taken up by village girls.

Basketry is a longstanding handicraft followed in most parts of Punjab. Durries are the flat woven rugs that are functional as well as striking in nature. They are used either as carpets on the floor or as bed sheets. Folk toys of Punjab are the products of the perfect amalgamation of artistry and social valueJuttis of Punjab.Punjabi juttis represent the traditional footwear of Punjab, which is known worldwide for its exquisite design and intricate pattern..Mud work is an ancient handicraft of Punjab, which is popular in the state till date.Punjabis have a special art called Chowk-Poorna, which involves the plastering of the house walls with mud and then decorating them with eye-catching designs.

Paranda is one of the traditional handicrafts of Punjab. It is a colorful hanging worn by the Punjabi women in their hair. They are made out of a bunch of silk threads, intricately woven with other skillful works. ‘Phulkari’, literally meaning the flower working, is designed to enhance the beauty of attire. It is an art form, in which exquisite embroidery is done over shawls, dupattas and headscarves, in a simple and sparse design.Punjab is well known for its artistic woodwork. Punjabi carpenters are highly skilled in making strong, durable and at the same time, visually attractive furniture. Their specialty lies in making a creative bed that has the back fitted with mirrors and has beautifully carved, colorful legs called pawas.


The music of Odisha is said to be as old as 2500 years which contributes a major percentage to the cultural heritage of the people of Odisha. Odissi is the lyrical form of dance which is very famous across the globe. It is a traditional form of classical dance and belonged to the ‘Devadasi’ cult, wherein young women were ‘married’ to gods and remained in the service of the temple, worshipping their lord and master. Chhau Dance, Danda Dance, Ghoomra Dance, Animal Mask Dance, Kathi Dance, Kedu Dance, Ranapa Dance, Paika Dance, and various tribal Dances contribute to other subtle dance forms and style of the people of Odisha. Among the tribal community and in the rural part of the state Baunsa Rani circus is very famous. Other theatrical performances include Pala and Daskathia.The people were very much patronized by the Kings for their artistic performances and this led to creativity by the artists in various fields and has passed on to ages. Some of the most famous Oriya paintings are the Bhitichitra or the murals, the Patachitra or the cloth painting and the Pothichitra or the palm leaf engraving .These paintings mainly uses motifs and themes based on folklores, legends and myths. The people of Odisha are very famous for their applique work which is a method of art involving super imposing patches of colored cloth on a fabric base to create bright and vivid bedcovers, garden umbrellas, wall hangings and hand fan,s etc.


Art and Craft of NagalandArt and Craft of Nagaland are vibrant and possess a great variety. Nagas, the tribal inhabitants of Nagaland, have always lived in harmony with their environment and their ancient tradition of art and craft reflects the same.

The magnificent village gates, traditional Naga huts, also known as Morungs, and house posts are some of the testaments of their brilliant craftsmanship. Other beautiful specimens of the Art and Craft of Nagaland include wicker drinking vessels, storage baskets and containers. These fine crafts are carved out by the artisans by utilizing natural products such as barks, wood, dyes etc. Clothes of vivid colours are also a distinguishing artefact of this region.

Weaving is a popular activity among the Naga women. Jackets, bags and colourful shawls are commonly weaved by a number of craftsmen. For weaving, usually loin loom is used, however fly shuttle loom has also gained popularity over years. Unique colour schemes and patterns are used by different tribes of the state and the motifs generally comprises of tribal folklore. Dyes were previously extracted from plants, roots and barks.. Basketry is also famous in Nagaland which is usually carried out by the tribal women. These are composed of fine strips of bamboo and cane. Baskets of different villages have distinguished beauty. Khonoma village is popular for baskets of fine and elaborate designs. Khiamngan weavers of Tuensang District weave baskets having delicate designs and lace like appearances. Bamboo and canes are also used to make mats and headgears. Local markets as well as markets outside the state are immensely benefited by these crafts. Woodcarving by Nagas is the testament of their brilliant craftsmanship. Simple implements like hand drill, local dao and chisel are used to prepare beautiful specimens for utilitarian as well as decorative purposes


•             A.L. Basham, The Wonder That was India, ISBN 0-330-43909-X, Picador London

•             Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times, (Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA), ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8)

•             Dalmia, Vasudha and Rashmi Sadana (editors), The Cambridge Companion to Modern Indian Culture, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-51625-9

•             Grihault, Nicki. Culture Smart! India: A Quick Guide to Customs and Etiquette. ISBN 1-85733-305-5.

•             Henderson, Carol E. (2002). Culture and Customs of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-30513-7.

•             Kapila Vatsyayan (1977). Classical Indian dance in literature and the arts. Sangeet Natak Akademi. OCLC 233639306., Table of Contents

•             Natalia Lidova (1994). Drama and Ritual of Early Hinduism. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1234-5.

•             Nilakanta Sastri, A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-560686-8

•             Sharma, Ram Sharan (2005), India’s Ancient Past, (Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-568785-9).

•             Tarla Mehta (1995). Sanskrit Play Production in Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1057-0.

•             Tully, Mark. No Full Stops in India. ISBN 0-14-010480-1



Arunima Maheshwari for being the scribe of this article.





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INDIA- Different cultures and unity in diversity

Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D.

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India

India is eternal. Though the beginnings of her numerous civilizations go so far back in time that they are lost in the twilight of history, she has the gift of perpetual youth. Her culture is ageless and is as relevant to this present 20th century as it was to the 20th century before Christ. ~~~ Nani Ardeshir Palkhiwala (Indian lawer & philanthropist)

India or Bharat, the fifth largest and the second populated country in the world, is one of the few countries which can boast of an ancient, deep-rooted and diverse culture, which stretches back to 5000 years.  In ancient times, India was known as ‘Bharata Varsha’, the country of the legendary king of Puranic times called Bharat, and was supposed to be a part of the island continent called ‘Jambu Dvipa’.

Endless Diversity

There is an endless diversity in India starting from its physical features to Geologic structure, fauna and flora, demographic structure, races, languages, religions, arts and crafts and customs and traditions. India has been variously described as “the Mini World”, the “epitome of the world” and an “ethnological museum”. The diversity in India is unique. Underneath this diversity lies the continuity of Indian civilization and social structure from the very earliest times until the present day.

India ‘s culture has been enriched by successive waves of migration, which were absorbed into the Indian way of life.   The successive waves of migration into India started with the Indo-Greeks (2nd Century B.C.), followed by the Kushans (First century A.D.), the incursions from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian and others beginning in the early 8th century A.D. and culminating with the establishment of the Muslim empire by the 13th century, and finally the advent of Europeans — the Portuguese, the Dutch, the English, the Danes and the French.  These interactions over the years led to introduction of newer elements in India ’s arts, music, literature and customs and traditions, thus enriching our cultural heritage.

From the very ancient times India not only absorbed the foreign cultures into its composite fold, but it also managed to spread the rich elements of its own unique culture in different parts of the world. It is historically recorded that the Chola rulers had cultural contacts with countries like Ilamandalam ( Sri Lanka ), Sri Vijaya ( Sumatra ), Chavakam (Java), Kamboja ( Cambodia ) andKadaram ( Malay Peninsula ). Evidences of these early Indian contacts are still found in the art and architecture of these countries. The Southeast Asian countries formed a stronghold of Indian culture from the early centuries of the Christian era. The various Southeast Asian languages show strong influence of Sanskrit.  Many earlier kingdoms of these countries had adopted Hinduism as their religion, whose influence is perceptible even today.

India presents a picture of unity in diversity to which history provides no parallel. There is complete harmony in India in each of its cultural elements. Religion and philosophy, which forms the bedrock of any civilisation, are evident in India in the form of all major religions in the world — Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism and Judaism.

Regional Diversity

Each state of India has its own language and set of tribes, festivals, arts and crafts and customs and traditions. While there are the Chenchus tribes in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, Bhils and Gonds in Central India,Dogris, Gujjars and Ladakhis in Jammu and Kashmir and Nagas, Bodos, Mishmis, Gharos and Khasis in the Northeast, there are tribes like the Jarewas, Onges, Andamanis and Sentinelese in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  There are some festivals, which are typical of particular states, cities or towns like the Bonnalu of Andhra Pradesh, Pushkar of Rajasthan, Rajrani of Orissa, Teej of Rajasthan and Bogali Bihu of Assam .  Each region is also identified with its typical folk and tribal dance forms, like Puli Vesham of Andhra Pradesh, Keli Gopal of Assam , Chhau of Bihar ,Dandia of Gujarat , Bhangra of Punjab and Otthanthulal of Kerala. Similar parallels can also be drawn in the folk drama, theatre and arts and crafts.

Development of Arts and Fine Arts

There was a continuous evolution of drama, music, dance, painting and folk art forms under the different political rules in India that ultimately led to the development of the definite ‘Indian’ element in each of these forms.  Thus, within the ambience of Indian culture one can identify ‘Indian Music’, ‘Indian Dance’, ‘Indian Theatre’, ‘Indian Literature’, ‘Indian Fairs and Festivals’ and so on.

Indian music has a very long and unbroken tradition, which is an accumulated heritage of centuries and traces its roots to Vedic days. Bharata’s Natyashastra (4th Century AD) is a great, comprehensive work on the science and technique of Indian drama, dance and music.  The advent of Muslim rule in India brought in a changed perspective in the style of Northern Indian music. The traditional Hindu devotional music form of dhruvapad got transformed into the classical dhrupad form of singing under the Muslim rule. The khayal developed as a new form of singing in the 18th century A.D. and became equally popular among Hindus and Muslims.  Different ragas began to be introduced from the medieval times. Tansen created many new ragas like Darbari Kanada, Darbari Todi, Miyan Ki Todi, Miya ki Malhar and Miya ki Sarang, which until now, are regarded as the foremost ragas of Northern India .  Sultan Hussain Sarki of Jaunpur introduced ragas like Jaunpuri tori and Hussaini Kanada. Amir Khusro is credited with the creation of the Hemant, Prabhat Kali and Hem Behag ragas.  A large variety of foreign musical instruments like Harmonium, Sarod, Shehnai, Sitar, Tabla and Violin were introduced in India to supplement the ancient musical instruments like Flute, Nadaswaram, Veena, Gootuvadhyam, Thavil, Mridangam and Plain drum.

India ‘s culture and heritage is so rich and deep-rooted that it may take several days or even years to understand all its dimensions.  From the time immemorial India has fascinated many a world traveller like Fahien, Hiuen Tsang, Ibn Batuta, Alberuni, Ferishta, Vasco da Gama, Marco Polo and several others. Albert Einstein once said: “We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.”

The great German Indologist Max Muller said: “If I were to look over the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power and beauty that nature can bestow – in some parts a very paradise on earth – I should point to India . If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed the choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solution of some of them, which well deserve the attention even of those who have studied Plato and Kant – I should point to India.”

The following quotation of the great American philosopher and writer Will Durant sums up the divine land called India, thus “India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europe’s languages; she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all.”



The Telugu people with a sparkling social structure are a blend of resonant conglomeration of culture and traditions. Having ruled by great Dynasties of the past the people and the state exhibit a mix of rich Nizami tradition and royal heritage. The cultural heritage of the country is contributed a lot by the state and the Telugu people. Being under the rule of various dynasties like the Chalukyas and the Mughals, the culture of the state is beautifully controlled and shaped. The Telugu people are very much influenced by the culture of their roots giving a creative touch of varied civilizations. Its rich culture is discernible in its mellow music, dazzling dances, crispy cuisine, aboriginal arts & and crafts, pious people, religions, and fairs and festivals. The culture has become inseparable from its people for it is adhered by the Telugu people living even in different parts of the country and the world.



The people of Arunachal Pradesh are divided into three cultural groups namely the first group comprising the Buddhists, while people of the second group practice Donyi Poloism (worship the Sun God and the Moon God) and the third group are those who follow Christianity and Hinduism. Music plays a major part of the culture of the people of Arunachal Pradesh adorned with instruments like drums and cymbals. The songs sung are mainly based on fables related to creatures and animals.Pailibos are folk songs which mainly depict the history and mythology. Baryi is another song in which the history, religious lore and mythology is narrated.


The Assamese are noted for their mixed traditional culture because of the assimilation of various ethno-cultural groups in the past including the local elements and the local elements in Sanskritised forms can be seen. However the Assamese culture is greatly influenced by the Kamarupa Kingdom which had been grouped here for nearly 700 years. This was followed by the Ahom dynasty during the 13th century which reigned for more than 600 years. Another milestone in the culture of the Assamese were the Koch Kingdom (15th–16th century AD) of western Assam and Kachari Kingdom (12th–18th century AD) of central and southern Assam. During the 15th century the great Srimanta Sankardeva (Sonkordeu) and his disciples started a religio-cultural movement namely the Vaishanav Movement, which paved way for another dimension to Assamese culture.



The culture of Chhattisgarh is a blend of literature, performing arts and crafts which is derived and nourished from daily life and observation of facts of people. Most of their decorative or the design pattern which is used in their art work is from their own religion, mythology, social and political events, nature and folklore. The other traditional crafts of the people include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft, bamboo ware and tribal jewellery.The people of Chhattisgarh have an in-depth knowledge deeply rooted in areas like sociological and historical movements of the region.

Its literature reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India. Famous plays like ‘Jarnail Singh’ and ‘Unch Neech’ written by Khub Chand Baghel highlights the social problems and difficulties faced by the lower caste people and the untouchables. When it comes to their art and craft the tribal groups of Bastar are believed to be the earliest who worked with metal where they are specialized in Dhokra casting in bronze and bell metal. These metals are also used to make tribal gods, votive animals, oil lamps, carts and animals. Chhattisgarh having more of forest land, the people are very good in intricate craft work like carved wooden doors, windows, ceilings, lintels, masks and sculptures of tribal cult figures. They use more of teak, shisham, sal and other hardwoods which were abundant in the forests of Chhattisgarh. The tribal people are also noted for their Pithora style of painting which is usually done on occasions like festivals, marriages or other celebrations. In ancient days the paintings were done mainly on the floors and walls of the temples and houses, but now the artists also exhibit their talents on cloth or paper which mainly depicts mythology and religious rituals.



The culture of Haryana dates back to the Vedic times and the people are noted for their rich cultural heritage. The people of Haryana are known for their rich folklore and strictly adhere to their own traditions and customs. The people of Haryana follow meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic Mantras which has become an integral part of their life. This way of life of the people of Haryana is age old customs. The culture of the people is extoled by their seasonal and religious festivals. The people are known for their diverse races, cultures and faiths which are blended in the right proportion to become something truly India. Even today they are preserving and follow their old religious and social traditions including fairs and festivals which are celebrated following all the traditional customs.

The dance of the people of Haryana forms the basis of their art and infact it is also most commonly referred by the people as mother of all arts. Apart from dance, the delighting form of arts enjoyed by the people is Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs. They consider dance to be a way of expressing their physical and emotional energy rather just as a part of recreation for they believe that dance is a source of taking away the worries and stress of the performers.


The people of Himachal Pradesh are known for their rich cultural heritage and values. Pahari is the most commonly spoken language by the people, though Hindi is the official language of the state. Pahari is a branch of sanskrit. Apart from Pahari there are other tribal languages spoken in Himachal Pradesh and they are Chambyali, Pangwali, Lahauli, Kinnauri and others. Hinduism is the major religion practiced by the people of Himachal Pradesh and this hilly region being the abode of the Hindu God Shiva and Goddess Parvati, there are lots of temples in this area. Folk music and dances are an integral part of the people of Himachal Pradesh giving way for a rich tradition. Natti is a very famous dance of the people of Kullu which is mainly performed by the men folk with a very colurful attire of short tunics and churidars (tights) and the embroidered Kullu caps.Burah, Birsue and Ghugti are a form of martial dance performed by the people which is performed by the waving of axes and swords. Based on romantic and satirical themes the people of Shimla perform a masked dance. The Bakayang is another famous dance performed by the Kinnauri women fully dressed in their traditional attires with chunky silver jewellery.


The culture of the Kashmiris is based on dance, music, festivals, food habits and literature which predominantly influences the lifestyle of the people. The culture of the Kashmiris is quite varied and rich. The Kashmiris, residents of the snow clad region have an interesting and different pattern of lifestyles for the fact that they have a unique and diverse culture. The Kashmiris having exposed to solidarity during independence have set in a new culture of literature and learning. For a long time in history the valley of Kashmir and the Kashmiris are considered to be detached from the country and also its geographical location paved way for it, for the state is encompassed with alluvial soil, glacial mountains and loft peaks, crystal clear streams, torrents, lofty crags, very broad lakes, pine forest and Chinar groves. But however today the valley of Kashmir is said to be the home of people belonging to various sects and races. The diversity of the state stands steady and highlighted by factors like dance, music, cuisine and festivals. Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh have a multifaceted, multi religious and multi-ethnic culture distinct to the three areas of the state.


The vibrant culture of Jahrkhand is highly influenced both by the tribal and the non-tribal community people for apart from these tribal communities there are also non-tribal communities and followers of different religion like Buddhism and Jainism. Jharkhand locally known as Vananchal is noted for its rich mineral and forest resources. Being a newly carved state from the southern region of Bihar, the state has witnessed transmigration of various people from West Bengal and Bihar, retaining their individual cultural traits intact. This blend of various tribal cultures has made the culture of Jharkhand for the better. Some of the other features which add up to the culture of the people are their music, festivals, handicrafts, dance, cuisine and life style. The people of Jharkhand celebrate different festivals with the same enthusiasm like people in any other part of the country. Some of the major festivals which are celebrated with great fun and pomp are Sarhul, Karma, Sohrai, Badna, Tusu, Id, Christmas, Holi, Dussehra, etc. Chhath Puja is reckoned as one of the most important festivals of Jharkhand which is celebrated twice year, namely in the month of March and November. Some of the important tribal festivals are Karma, Sohrai and Sarhul. On the day of the Karma festival the devotees fast for about 24 hours and tribal dances and music are performed around a sal tree which is placed in an open ground. The Sohari festival is celebrated during Diwali and it is one of the long awaited festival of the Jharkhand people.



Karnataka noted for its varied religious traditions along with their renowned history has helped the state and the people in achieving a rich cultural heritage for the state. Though Kannadiagas have Karnataka as their home town, the state is also the place for Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkanis. Karnataka also accommodates minority of Tibetan Buddhists and tribes like the Soligas, Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis.There are mentions about this region in the period of the great epic Ramayana as Kishkindha. Based on literary factors the region of Mysore is called as Mahisha Mandala after a demon named Mahishasura.The neoteric or the contemporary theatre culture in Karnataka is still resonant with people like Ninasam, Ranga Shankara, Rangayana and Prabhat Kalavidaru continuing to build on the foundations laid by Gubbi Veeranna, T. P. Kailasam, B. V. Karanth, K V Subbanna, Prasanna and others. In the cultural history of India one can strongly say that the Haridasa devotional movement has brought a great change. It then nearly took six centuries to give the culture a proper shape by several saints and mystics. The culture change by spiritual influences also includes art and philosophy which was more concentrated in the state of Karnataka.



Madhya Pradesh is noted for its rich cultural heritage where the essence of all the Indian culture is encapsulated. The culture of these people is very colorful and has varied dimensions which are the outcome of different customs and traditions and arts and crafts followed by different blends of people. The people of Madhya Pradesh are said to follow the highest flavors of culture and tradition. Apart from the predominating tribal population, the culture of the people is noted for its harmonious blend of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Jains, Muslims and Sikhs. The lifestyle of the people is very much influenced by the Socio-cultural activities of the tribal people and thereby giving a rich tradition to the people and to the place. The spirit of the people is exhibited by the different cultural activities. Music and the folk songs have contributed a lot towards the distinctive culture of the state. The most famous music of the people is the Relo folk song belonging to the Sing Maria and Muria tribes and it is usually sung by the tribal children. There is some ritual song which is usually sung at the time of departing from the dear ones and these are popularly known as Leha song, very common in the Jagdalpur region of Madhya Pradesh. Dhankul songs and Chait Parah are even popular in the state. Flute and harmonium are used majorly by the musicians. Dance plays a prominent role among the tribal population like Lota and Phag. At the time of wedding a special dance known as Gaur is performed by the people. The people are also known for their stilt dance. Thus apart from the cultural aspects various other socio- political factors are also performed by dances. Another notable feature adding to the culture of the people is their art work which is of unique charm and also proves how hardworking the craftsman are.



The distinct mix of various cultures has shaped the people of Maharashtra into a land of prosperity and spirituality. Though the state is developed to a great extent in the field of modernization, the people maintain their culture by following their traditional practices. The state was being initially the land of the great warriors who have left behind grandeur, high spirits, exuberance and might. All these features add to the rich culture and heritage to the Marathis. The Maharashtrians are known for their special dance forms which accompanies most festivals of the state. The Sholapur district in Maharashtra is noted for its Dhangari Gaja dance where the people adorn themselves with dhoti, angarakha and pheta and colorful handkerchiefs. The people of Maharashtra perform a special type of dance known as Lavani in any gatherings like social, political and religious. Many social functions never miss the Povadas dance which mainly depicts the history of the Maratha ruler, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.


Manipuris takes the pride of a rich cultural heritage. The people of Manipur strongly adhere to their customs and religious belief and are very superstitious. The Manipuris are peace loving with lot of creativity and very artistic in nature which is exhibited in their handloom and handicrafts. The people of Manipur celebrate lot of fairs and festivals which is always accompanied by vibrant dances and music. Though the people of Manipur are divided into a number of colorful sects of people like Meitei, Naga, Kuki, Meitei Pangal, etc, they still in harmony with their own unique culture and traditions. Each one strictly adhere to their customs and faith and still respect people and their beliefs from other communities or religious sects. The social structure of the people of Manipur is mainly built by their religion. Manipur being predominantly occupied by the tribal people, they have a strong belief in supernatural power that organizes and animates the material universe and thus their customs is molded out of superstitions.


The culture of the Bengalis gives a special identity to the state with various unique features of heritage in its music, cinema and specially its literature. The Bengalis boast of one of the richest and vibrant culture in India which is a perfect blend of modernity and tradition. The people of Bengal have contributed a lot towards the creation of such a magnificent atmosphere. The Bengalis were not only pioneers in reformation movements but also the people of Bengal were the first to experience the cosmopolitan culture in the country. Some of the important constituents of the culture of the Bengalis are its music, Bengali cinema, Bengali literature and of course the Bengali cuisine. The sanctity of Hooghly, the beauty of Eastern Himalayas, the diversity of Sunderbans and the freshness of the Tea Gardens, all blend together to constitute what we call the unique culture of West Bengal. Bengal is the birth place of several social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Vidyasagar, great saint Ram Krishna Paramahamsa and Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. The Bengalis are said to have inherited a rich genetic features from their earlier generations which is proved by the popular saying ‘What Bengal thinks today, Rest of India will think tomorrow’.



The culture of the people of Uttarakhand is kept in check or enriched by features like its music and dance, festivals, cuisine, arts and crafts and much more. A new dimension is given to the culture of Uttarakhand where the people here are bestowed with Land of Gods, natural diversity and the element of the Himalaya’s unparalleled with its natural beauty and sanctity. Thus there are so many geo -social factors which influences the culture of the people of Uttarakhand. The religious bonds between the people is held tight by features like music, dance and arts and thus the people are in turn deep -rooted in their religion with awe inspiring Himalayas. The people of Uttarakhand never miss out on any celebration of festivals for they take the slightest possible opportunity to celebrate all the festivals of India with great enthusiasm.

Some of the national festivals celebrated by them include Holi, Diwali, Navratri, Christmas and Durgotsav. The people here generally get very excited about festivals and they take an active participation in it by fasting, joining the festival processions, cooking food, etc. Some of the festivals pertaining to the people of Uttarakhand during which their distinct customs and traditions are followed includes Basant Panchami, Bhitauli, Harela, Phooldei, Batsavitri, Ganga Dusshera, Dikar Puja, Olgi or Ghee Sankranti, Khatarua, Ghuian Ekadashi and Ghughutia. At the time of monsoon and on the first day of the month of `Shravana` a Kumaoni festival known as Harela is celebrated with great pomp and religious fervor. The love between a brother and a sister is shared by exchanging of gifts between them on the festival of Bhitauli and this is celebrated in the month of Chaitra.


The culture of the people of Uttar Pradesh is very much fascinating and captivating. The people are known for their rich cultural heritage where they adhere to their traditional customs and practices. Apart from its natural gifts the people have nurtured a rich heritage of cultural elements. The people of Uttar Pradesh take the pride of bestowing the two great epics in Indian history namely Mahabharata and Ramayan.The culture of Uttar Pradesh, thus, has rightly imbibed this trend and manifested it in its various features. It is highly essential to mention about the fairs and festivals celebrated by the people which gives a glory to the culture of the people. Apart from the national festivals like Holi, Diwali and Makar Sankranti which are celebrated with great fervor the people also fete on many regional festivals and fairs like Taj Mahaotsav which attracts people from all over the globe. This festival recalls the inheritance of the Mughal era by displaying the fine marble replica toys of the Taj, Mughal jewelry, ‘zari’ clothing and much more. The festival of Kumbhmela is celebrated with following of religious practices and traditional customs. During the months of October- November the Ganga festival is celebrated on the banks of the river Ganga and the same is worshipped. The other major celebrations of festivals and fairs include Lucknow festival and Bateshwar fair. Most of the festivals here are accompanied by events like kite flying, chariot race, and pigeon flying which are memories of the Hindustan Nawabs and is an integral part of the festival.



The state of Tripura is dominated by the Bengalis and so the prevalent culture is also Bengali. The people of Tripura re noted for a rich cultural heritage with a blend of music, fine arts, performing arts, and handicrafts. The culture as a whole is a blend of various ethno-linguistic groups such as, Tripuris, Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Lushai, Mogh, Munda, Oraon, Santhal, and Uchoi. Apart from the tribal community the culture of the Bengali people is widely practiced by the people of Tripura for even the tribal people living in urban areas are slowly getting influenced by the Bengali culture and traditions. The Tripura kings were great patron of Bengali culture, especially literature and Bengali language was the language of the court. The Bengali literature, music and cuisine are also taken up by the people of Tripura. The culture of the people of Tripura is not complete without the music and dance of the tribal people of the state. All the social and religious gatherings like weddings and other festivals are accompanied by music and dance pertaining to their own tribal community. Some of the main musical instruments used by the people are sarinda, chongpreng, and sumui.The people belonging to the Tripuri and Jamatia tribal community perform goria dance during the Goria puja and Jhum dance in the harvest season. Some of the other tribal dances performed by the people are lebang dance, mamita dance, and mosak sulmani dance.The hojagiri dance performed by young girls balancing on earthen pitchers is very famous pertaining to the Reang community. During the Bizhu festival the Chakmas perform the Bizhu dance. Other tribal dances of the Reang community are wangala dance of the Garo people, hai-hak dance of the Halam branch of Kuki people, sangrai dance and owa dance of the Mog tribe and others.



Religion plays a harmonious role in the people of Tamil Nadu. But however the religion is not of a uniform or single pattern for they preach both the ritualistic and supplicatory aspects of the same. Their rituals are related to animism and the other forms of deity worship. There are tree worship, stone worship, animal worship and the worship of stars and planets. Hinduism forms the major religion followed in the state followed by Islam, Christianity and Jainism.

In their chiseled splendor and symmetrical form, the bronzes of Tamil Nadu testify the grandeur of an art form that reached the peak of perfection a thousand years ago. The people of Tamil Nadu are known for spinning and weaving which is the most important and widely practiced craft. The textile products are known for their beauty and fineness, especially the silk and cotton fabrics.



The people of Sikkim have a rich cultural heritage with a homogenous blend of different religion, customs and traditions of different communities of people living. Apart from the traditional Sikkimese language and the tribal languages the people of Sikkim also speak other languages like Hindi and English. They are generally characterized as warm and friendly in nature for even in spite of different communities occupying the state they still live in peace and harmony. Even small festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm and devotion. There are social or religious gatherings or celebrations which cannot miss out the music and dance of the people of Sikkim.

The mask dance is very famous here and is performed by the monks in the temple during religious festivals. The monks cover themselves with gaily-painted masks, ceremonial swords and sparkling jewels where they dance according to the sound of resounding drums, trumpeting horns and religious chanting. The earliest inhabitants of the state namely the Lepchas are predominantly Buddhist and Christians, but however before the introduction of these two religions they believed in the bone faith or mune faith based on the spirits, good and bad for they prayed to the spirits associated with nature like mountains, rivers and forests. Their settlements are quite small for each hut in a village is made of bamboo and is raised about five feet above the ground on stilts. There are just a couple of rooms with only small minimum essential requirements of life.



The Rajasthani’s own the pride of not only enriching the culture of Rajasthan but also the entire culture of India. The people of Rajasthan are known for their culture which is nearly 5000 years old and which is a blend of tradition and history with the present contemporary lifestyle. There are lot of customs and traditions followed by the diverse population of the state and it adds to the embellishment of the culture of the people. The cultural heritage of the Rajasthani’s are influenced by various features like its folk music and dances, different languages and dialects, the majestic forts, palaces, mansions and divinely holy places of religious worship, its multihued fairs and festivals and its cuisine. Not only the people but also the commercial markets give a picture of the vibrant culture of the Rajasthani’s. Various products of the people of Rajasthan which can reflect the culture of the state are tie and die textiles, intricately carved wooden furniture with alluring motifs, block print textiles, lavish Bandhej saris and kurtis, zari and embroidered saris, luxurious and royal hand knotted carpets and durries, astonishing blue pottery, captivating mojaris and jutis, and so on.



The culture of the people of Punjab is supposed to be one of the oldest and richest cultures of the world which has a very great history and complexity. The culture of the Punjabi’s is widely spread throughout the country for the Punjabi’s have settled across the globe. The culture of the Punjabi’s shows its diversity and rich cultural heritage which includes different fields like Philosophy, poetry, spirituality, education, artistry, music, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions, values and history. The culture of the Punjabi’s is known for their uniqueness and is very famous. There is a clannishness and high spirits which is exhibited in the lifestyle of the Punjabi people. People, Culture, Festivals of Punjab collectively form a vivacious base of enlightening social verve. While the people of Punjab are known for their strong determination, the culture of the state presents a multi-hued heritage of ancient civilizations.



The people of Odisha being ruled by various rulers, their culture along with arts and crafts has also emerged accordingly. It is the language and the culture of the Aryans seen in Odisha. These people who made their entry from the north eastern state can be defined as those very primitive nor can you term them to have a decent cultural background. Thus the present style of the living of the people of Odisha is a result of the racial and cultural amalgamation. Also the geography of the state contributes to its culture for the state stands as a coastal corridor between the northern and southern India and having a blend of the races and cultures of the Aryans and the Dravidians. Though the people and the state are slowly getting urbanized, still certain primitive traditions and values are kept alive in its original or ancient form for the major portion of the state is largely in its rural form. The people of Odisha are known for their rich cultural heritage and have an amalgamation of the Jagannath cult, the Vaishnav cult and Buddhism and Sivayat cult. Odia apart from being the oldest language of the state is also the most commonly spoken and the official language of the state where at least 85% of the total population speak this language. There is also other tribal languages spoken by the different group of tribal people.



The culture and the social structure of the Nagas vary from one tribal community to another. There was a lot of inter- village quarrels happening in earlier days for choosing the sites for the village and was very much influenced by considerations of defensive strategy. The houses were usually built on the top of the hills enclosed with stone walls and heavy wooden gates with deep ditches dug around the wall. The dance of the Naga’s is an example for the proof of the vibrant and dynamic cultural traditions of the north eastern state of India. The folk dances of the Naga’s accompanied with excellent folk songs and native musical instruments clearly indicate the rich cultural heritage of the people of Nagaland. The dance of the Naga’s is mainly dominated by the male members of the community who are fully dressed in traditional costumes and they usually dance in groups more preferably in closed circles. Each tribal community has their unique style of dance form. Some of the famous dances of the people of Nagaland are Zeliang dance, Cock dance, Fly dance, Cricket dance and Bear dance. An integral part of social and cultural lifestyle of the native population of Nagaland, the unique dancing styles of the state are performed with proper props of dao, shield or spear. The folk music of the Naga’s again shows diversity in their melodious traditional rhythm depending on the various communities of the tribal people. The music composed is mainly based on features like religious beliefs, romance or bravery.



A.L. Basham, The Wonder That was India, ISBN 0-330-43909-X, Picador London



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Vedic Mathematics


Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India


Swami Bharati Krishna Tirtha (1884-1960), former Jagadguru Sankaracharya of Puri culled a set of 16 Sutras (aphorisms) and 13 Sub – Sutras (corollaries) from the Atharva Veda. He developed methods and techniques for amplifying the principles contained in the aphorisms and their corollaries, and called it Vedic Mathematics.

According to him, there has been considerable literature on Mathematics in the Veda-sakhas. Unfortunately most of it has been lost to humanity as of now. This is evident from the fact that while, by the time of Patanjali, about 25 centuries ago, 1131 Veda-sakhas were known to the Vedic scholars, only about ten Veda-sakhas are presently in the knowledge of the Vedic scholars in the country.

The Sutras apply to and cover almost every branch of Mathematics. They apply even to complex problems involving a large number of mathematical operations. Application of the Sutras saves a lot of time and effort in solving the problems, compared to the formal methods presently in vogue. Though the solutions appear like magic, the application of the Sutras is perfectly logical and rational. The computation made on the computers follows, in a way, the principles underlying the Sutras. The Sutras provide not only methods of calculation, but also ways of thinking for their application.


II. Vedic Mathematical Formulae

What we call VEDIC MATHEMATICS is a mathematical elaboration of ‘Sixteen Simple Mathematical formulae from theVedas’ as brought out by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji.


1. Ekadhikena Purvena

The Sutra (formula) Ekādhikena Pūrvena means: “By one more than the previous one”.

i) Squares of numbers ending in 5 :

Now we relate the sutra to the ‘squaring of numbers ending in 5’. Consider the example 252.

Here the number is 25. We have to find out the square of the number. For the number 25, the last digit is 5 and the ‘previous’ digit is 2. Hence, ‘one more than the previous one’, that is, 2+1=3. The Sutra, in this context, gives the procedure’to multiply the previous digit 2 by one more than itself, that is, by 3′. It becomes the L.H.S (left hand side) of the result, that is, 2 X 3 = 6. The R.H.S (right hand side) of the result is52 , that is, 25.

Thus 252 = 2 X 3 / 25 = 625.

In the same way,

352 = 3 X (3+1) /25 = 3 X 4/ 25 = 1225;

652 = 6 X 7 / 25 = 4225;

1052 = 10 X 11/25 = 11025;

1352 = 13 X 14/25 = 18225

2. Nikhilam navatascaramam Dasatah

The formula simply means : “all from 9 and the last from 10”

The formula can be very effectively applied in multiplication of numbers, which are nearer to bases like 10, 100, 1000i.e., to the powers of 10 . The procedure of multiplication using the Nikhilam involves minimum number of steps, space, time saving and only mental calculation. The numbers taken can be either less or more than the base considered.

The difference between the number and the base is termed as deviation. Deviation may be positive or negative. Positive deviation is written without the positive sign and the negative deviation, is written using Rekhank (a bar on the number). Now observe the following table.

Number Base Number – Base Deviation

14 10 14 – 10 4 _

8 10 8 – 10 -2 or 2 __

97 100 97 – 100 -03 or 03

112 100 112 – 100 12 ___

993 1000 993 – 1000 -007 or 007

1011 1000 1011 – 1000 011

Some rules of the method (near to the base) in Multiplication

a) Since deviation is obtained by Nikhilam sutra we call the method as Nikhilam multiplication.

Eg : 94. Now deviation can be obtained by ‘all from 9 and the last from 10’ sutrai.e., the last digit 4 is from 10 and remaining digit 9 from 9 gives 06.

b) The two numbers under consideration are written one below the other. The deviations are written on the right hand side.

Eg : Multiply 7 by 8.

Now the base is 10. Since it is near to both the numbers, 7

we write the numbers one below the other. 8  —–

Take the deviations of both the numbers from the base and represent _

7 3  _

Rekhank or the minus sign before the deviations 8 2 ——

or 7 -3

8 -2  ——-

or remainders 3 and 2 implies that the numbers to be multiplied are both less than 10

c) The product or answer will have two parts, one on the left side and the other on the right. A vertical or a slant linei.e., a slash may be drawn for the demarcation of the two parts i.e.,


d) The R.H.S. of the answer is the product of the deviations of the numbers. It shall contain the number of digits equal to number of zeroes in the base. _

i.e., 7 3 _

8 2 _____________

/ (3×2) = 6

Since base is 10, 6 can be taken as it is.

e) L.H.S of the answer is the sum of one number with the deviation of the other. It can be arrived at in any one of the four ways.

i) Cross-subtract deviation 2 on the second row from the original number7 in the first row i.e., 7-2 = 5.

ii) Cross–subtract deviation 3 on the first row from the original number8 in the   second row (converse way of(i))

i.e., 8 – 3 = 5

iii) Subtract the base 10 from the sum of the given numbers.

i.e., (7 + 8) – 10 = 5

iv) Subtract the sum of the two deviations from the base.

i.e., 10 – ( 3 + 2) = 5

Hence 5 is left hand side of the answer. _

Thus 7 3 _

8 2


5 /

Now (d) and (e) together give the solution


7 3 7


8 2 i.e., X 8

‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾‾‾‾

5 / 6 56

f) If R.H.S. contains less number of digits than the number of zeros in the base, the remaining digits are filled up by giving zero or zeroes on the left side of the R.H.S. If the number of digits are more than the number of zeroes in the base, the excess digit or digits are to be added to L.H.S of the answer.

The general form of the multiplication under Nikhilam can be shown as follows : Let N1 and N2 be two numbers near to a given base in powers of 10, andD1 and D2 are their respective deviations from the base. ThenN1 X N2 can be represented as


Case (i) : Both the numbers are lower than the base.We have already considered the example 7 x 8 , with base 10.

Now let us solve some more examples by taking bases 100 and 1000 respectively.

Ex. 1: Find 97 X 94. Here base is 100. Now following the rules, the working is

as follows:

Ex. 2: 98 X 97 Base is 100.

Ex. 3: 75X95. Base is 100.

Ex. 4: 986 X 989. Base is 1000.

Ex. 5: 994X988. Base is 1000.

Ex. 6: 750X995.


Case ( ii) : Both the numbers are higher than the base.

The method and rules follow as they are. The only difference is the positive deviation. Instead of cross – subtract, we follow cross – add.

Ex. 7: 13X12. Base is 10

Ex. 8: 18X14. Base is 10.

Ex. 9: 104X102. Base is 100.

104 04

102 02


106 / 4×2 = 10608 ( rule -f )


Ex. 10: 1275X1004. Base is 1000.

1275 275

1004 004


1279/ 275×4 = 1279 / 1100 ( rule -f )

____________ = 1280100

3. Urdhva – tiryagbhyam

Urdhva – tiryagbhyam is the general formula applicable to all cases of multiplication and also in the division of a large number by another large number. It means

(a) Multiplication of two 2 digit numbers.

Ex.1: Find the product 14 X 12

i) The right hand most digit of the multiplicand, the first number (14) i.e.,4 is multiplied by the right hand most digit of the multiplier, the second number

(12)i.e., 2. The product 4 X 2 = 8 forms the right hand most part of the answer.

ii) Now, diagonally multiply the first digit of the multiplicand (14) i.e., 4 and second digit of the multiplier (12)i.e., 1 (answer 4 X 1=4); then multiply the second digit of the multiplicand i.e.,1 and first digit of the multiplier i.e., 2 (answer 1 X 2 = 2); add these two i.e.,4 + 2 = 6. It gives the next, i.e., second digit of the answer. Hence second digit of the answer is 6.

iii) Now, multiply the second digit of the multiplicand i.e., 1 and second digit of the multiplieri.e., 1 vertically, i.e., 1 X 1 = 1. It gives the left hand most part of the answer.

Thus the answer is 16 8.

Symbolically we can represent the process as follows :


The symbols are operated from right to left .

Step i) :

Step ii) :

Step iii) :

Now in the same process, answer can be written as




2 : 6 + 3 : 9 = 299 (Recall the 3 steps)



X 41


16 : 4 + 4 : 1 = 1681.


What happens when one of the results i.e., either in the last digit or in the middle digit of the result, contains more than 1 digit ? Answer is simple. The right – hand – most digit there of is to be put down there and the preceding,i.e., left –hand –side digit or digits should be carried over to the left and placed under the previous digit or digits of the upper row. The digits carried over may be written as in Ex. 4.

Ex.4: 32 X 24

Step (i) : 2 X 4 = 8

Step (ii) : 3 X 4 = 12; 2 X 2 = 4; 12 + 4 = 16.

Here 6 is to be retained. 1 is to be carried out to left side.

Step (iii) : 3 X 2 = 6. Now the carried over digit 1 of 16 is to be added.

i.e., 6 + 1 = 7.

Thus 32 X 24 = 768

We can write it as follows









Note that the carried over digit from the result (3X4) + (2X2) = 12+4 = 16 i.e.,1 is placed under the previous digit 3 X 2 = 6 and added.

After sufficient practice, you feel no necessity of writing in this way and simply operate or perform mentally.

Ex.5 28 X 35.

Step (i) : 8 X 5 = 40. 0 is retained as the first digit of the answer and 4 is carried over.

Step (ii) : 2 X 5 = 10; 8 X 3 = 24; 10 + 24 = 34; add the carried over 4 to

34. Now the result is 34 + 4 = 38. Now 8 is retained as the second digit of the answer and3 is carried over.

Step (iii) : 2 X 3 = 6; add the carried over 3 to 6. The result 6 + 3 = 9 is the third or final digit from right to left of the answer.

Thus 28 X 35 = 980.









Step (i): 8 X 7 = 56; 5, the carried over digit is placed below the second digit.

Step (ii): ( 4 X 7) + (8 X 4) = 28 + 32 = 60; 6, the carried over digit is placed below the third digit.

Step (iii): Respective digits are added.


4. Paravartya Yojayet

‘Paravartya – Yojayet’ means ‘transpose and apply’

(i) Consider the division by divisors of more than one digit, and when the divisors are slightly greater than powers of 10.

Example 1 : Divide 1225 by 12.

Step 1 : (From left to right ) write the Divisor leaving the first digit, write the other digit or digits using negative (-) sign and place them below the divisor as shown.




Step 2 : Write down the dividend to the right. Set apart the last digit for the remainder.

i.e.,, 12 122 5

- 2

Step 3 : Write the 1st digit below the horizontal line drawn under thedividend. Multiply the digit by –2, write the product below the 2nd digit and add.

i.e.,, 12 122 5

-2 -2

‾‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾‾


Since 1 x –2 = -2and 2 + (-2) = 0

Step 4 : We get second digits’ sum as ‘0’. Multiply the second digits’ sum thus obtained by –2 and writes the product under 3rd digit and add.

12 122 5

- 2 -20

‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾

102 5

Step 5 : Continue the process to the last digit.

i.e., 12 122 5

- 2 -20 -4

‾‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾

102 1

Step 6: The sum of the last digit is the Remainder and the result to its left is Quotient.

Thus Q = 102 andR = 1

Example 2 : Divide 1697 by 14.

14 1 6 9 7

- 4 -4–8–4

‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾

1 2 1 3

Q = 121, R = 3.

Example 3 : Divide 2598 by 123.

Note that the divisor has 3 digits. So we have to set up the last two digits of the dividend for the remainder.

1 2 3 25 98 Step ( 1 ) & Step ( 2 )


‾‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾

Now proceed the sequence of steps write –2 and –3 as follows :

1 2 3 25 98

-2-3 -4 -6

‾‾‾‾‾ -2–3


21 1 5

Since 2 X (-2, -3)= -4 , -6;5 – 4 = 1

and (1 X (-2,-3); 9 – 6 – 2 = 1; 8 – 3 = 5.

Hence Q = 21 and R = 15.


5. Sunyam Samya Samuccaye

The Sutra ‘Sunyam Samyasamuccaye’ says the ‘Samuccaya is the same, that Samuccaya is Zero.’ i.e., it should be equated to zero. The term ‘Samuccaya’ has several meanings under different contexts.

i) We interpret, ‘Samuccaya’ as a term which occurs as a common factor in all the terms concerned and proceed as follows.

Example 1: The equation 7x + 3x = 4x + 5x has the same factor ‘ x ‘ in all its terms. Hence by the sutra it is zero,i.e., x = 0.

Otherwise we have to work like this:

7x + 3x = 4x + 5x

10x = 9x

10x – 9x = 0

x = 0

This is applicable not only for ‘x’ but also any such unknown quantity as follows.

Example 2: 5(x+1) = 3(x+1)

No need to proceed in the usual procedure like

5x + 5 = 3x + 3

5x – 3x = 3 – 5

2x = -2 or x = -2 ÷ 2 = -1

Simply think of the contextual meaning of ‘Samuccaya’

Now Samuccaya is ( x + 1)

x + 1 = 0 gives x = -1

ii) Now we interpret ‘Samuccaya’ as product of independent terms in expressions like (x+a) (x+b)

Example 3: ( x + 3 ) ( x + 4) = ( x – 2) ( x – 6 )

Here Samuccaya is 3 x 4 = 12 = -2 x -6

Since it is same , we derive x = 0

This example, we have already dealt in type ( ii ) of Paravartya in solving simple equations.

iii) We interpret ‘ Samuccaya ‘as the sum of the denominators of two fractions having the same numerical numerator. Consider the example.

1 1

____ + ____ = 0

3x-2 2x-1

for this we proceed by takingL.C.M.


____________ = 0



__________ = 0


5x – 3 = 0 5x = 3


x = __


Instead of this, we can directly put the Samuccaya i.e., sum of the denominators

i.e., 3x – 2 + 2x – 1 = 5x – 3 = 0

giving 5x = 3 x = 3 / 5

It is true and applicable for all problems of the type

m m

____ + _____ = 0

ax+b cx+d

Samuccaya is ax+b+cx+d and solution is ( m ≠ 0 )

- ( b + d )

x = _________

( a + c )

iii) We now interpret ‘Samuccaya’ as combination or total.

If the sum of the numerators and the sum of the denominators be the same, then that sum = 0.

Consider examples of type

ax+ b ax + c

_____ = ______

ax+ c ax + b

In this case, (ax+b) (ax+b) =(ax+c) (ax+c)



+ 2abx + b2

= a2x


+ 2acx +c2

2abx – 2acx = c2

– b2


x ( 2ab – 2ac ) = c2

– b2


(c+b)(c-b) -(c+b)

x = ______ = _________ = _____

2a(b-c) 2a(b-c) 2a

As per Samuccaya (ax+b) + (ax+c) = 0

2ax+b+c = 0

2ax = -b-c


x = ______

2a Hence the statement.


6. Anurupye – Sunyamanyat

The Sutra Anurupye Sunyamanyat says : ‘If one is in ratio, the other one is zero’.

We use this Sutra in solving a special type of simultaneous simple equations in which the coefficients of ‘one’ variable are in the same ratio to each other as the independent terms are to each other. In such a context the Sutra says the ‘other’ variable is zero from which we get two simple equations in the first variable (already considered) and of course give the same value for the variable.

Example 1:

3x + 7y = 2

4x + 21y = 6

Observe that the y-coefficients are in the ratio 7 : 21 i.e., 1 : 3, which is same as the ratio of independent terms i.e., 2 : 6 i.e., 1 : 3. Hence the other variable x = 0 and 7y = 2 or 21y = 6 gives y = 2 / 7

Example 2:

323x + 147y = 1615

969x + 321y = 4845

The very appearance of the problem is frightening. But just an observation and anurupye sunyamanyat give the solution x = 5, because coefficient of x ratio is

323 : 969 = 1 : 3 and constant terms ratio is 1615 : 4845 = 1 : 3.

y = 0 and 323 x = 1615 or 969 x = 4845 gives x = 5.

Solve the following by anurupye sunyamanyat.

1. 12x + 78y = 12 2. 3x + 7y = 24


16x + 96y =16 12x + 5y = 96

3. 4x – 6y = 24 4. ax + by = bm

7x – 9y = 36 cx + dy = dm

In solving simultaneous quadratic equations, also we can take the help of the

‘sutra’ in the following way:

Example 3 :

Solve for x and y

x + 4y = 10


+ 5xy + 4y2

+ 4x – 2y = 20


+ 5xy + 4y2

+ 4x – 2y = 20 can be written as

( x + y ) ( x + 4y ) + 4x – 2y = 20

10 ( x + y ) + 4x – 2y = 20 ( Since x + 4y = 10 )

10x + 10y + 4x – 2y = 20

14x + 8y = 20

Now x + 4y = 10

14x + 8y = 20 and 4 : 8 :: 10 : 20

from the Sutra, x = 0 and 4y = 10, i.e.,, 8y= 20 y = 10/4 = 2½

Thus x = 0 and y = 2½ is the solution.


7. Sankalana – Vyavakalanabhyam

This Sutra means ‘by addition and by subtraction’. It can be applied in solving a special type of simultaneous equations where the x – coefficients and the y – coefficients are found interchanged.

Example 1:

45x – 23y = 113

23x – 45y = 91

In the conventional method we have to make equal either the coefficient of x or coefficient of y in both the equations. For that we have to multiply equation ( 1 ) by 45 and equation ( 2 ) by 23 and subtract to get the value of x and then substitute the value of x in one of the equations to get the value of y or we have to multiply equation ( 1 ) by 23 and equation ( 2 ) by 45 and then subtract to get value of y and then substitute the value of y in one of the equations, to get the value of x. It is difficult process to think of.

From Sankalana – vyavakalanabhyam add them,

i.e., ( 45x – 23y ) + ( 23x – 45y ) = 113 + 91

i.e., 68x – 68y = 204 x – y = 3

subtract one from other,

i.e., ( 45x – 23y ) – ( 23x – 45y ) = 113 – 91

i.e., 22x + 22y = 22 x + y = 1

and repeat the same sutra, we get x = 2 and y = – 1

Very simple addition and subtraction are enough, however big the coefficients may be.

Example 2:

1955x – 476y = 2482

476x – 1955y = -4913

Oh ! what a problem ! And still

just add, 2431( x – y ) = – 2431 x – y = -1

subtract, 1479 ( x + y ) = 7395 x + y = 5

once again add, 2x = 4 x = 2

subtract – 2y = – 6 y = 3

Solve the following problems usingSankalana – Vyavakalanabhyam.

1. 3x + 2y = 18

2x + 3y = 17

2. 5x – 21y = 26

21x – 5y = 26

3. 659x + 956y = 4186

956x + 659y = 3889

8. Puranapuranabhyam

The Sutra can be taken as Purana – Apuranabhyam which means by the completion or non – completion. Purana is well known in the present system. We can see its application in solving the roots for general form of quadratic equation.

We have : ax2

+ bx + c = 0

x2 + (b/a)x + c/a = 0 ( dividing by a )

x2 + (b/a)x = – c/a

completing the square ( i.e.,, purana ) on the L.H.S.

x2 + (b/a)x + (b2/4a2) = -c/a + (b2/4a2)

[x + (b/2a)]2 = (b2 – 4ac) / 4a2


- b ± √ b2  – 4ac

Proceeding in this way we finally get x = _______________


9. Calana – Kalanabhyam

In the book on Vedic Mathematics Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji mentioned the Sutra ‘Calana – Kalanabhyam’ at only two places. The Sutra means ‘Sequential motion’.

i) In the first instance it is used to find the roots of a quadratic equation7x2 – 11x – 7 = 0. Swamiji called the sutra as calculus formula. Its application at that point is as follows.Now by calculus formula we say: 14x–11 = ±√317

A Note follows saying every Quadratic can thus be broken down into two binomial factors. An explanation in terms of first differential, discriminant with sufficient number of examples are given under the chapter ‘Quadratic Equations’.

ii) At the Second instance under the chapter ‘Factorization and Differential Calculus’ for factorizing expressions of 3rd, 4th and 5th degree, the procedure is mentioned as’Vedic Sutras relating to Calana – Kalana – Differential Calculus’.


10. Ekanyunena Purvena

The Sutra Ekanyunena purvena comes as a Sub-sutra to Nikhilam which gives the meaning ‘One less than the previous’ or ‘One less than the one before’.

1) The use of this sutra in case of multiplication by 9,99,999.. is as follows .  Method :

a) The left hand side digit (digits) is ( are) obtained by applying the ekanyunena purvena i.e. by deduction 1 from the left side digit (digits) .

e.g. ( i ) 7 x 9; 7 – 1 = 6 ( L.H.S. digit )

b) The right hand side digit is the complement or difference between the multiplier and the left hand side digit (digits) . i.e. 7 X 9 R.H.S is 9 – 6 = 3.

c) The two numbers give the answer; i.e. 7 X 9 = 63.

Example 1: 8 x 9 Step ( a ) gives 8 – 1 = 7 ( L.H.S. Digit )

Step ( b ) gives 9 – 7 = 2 ( R.H.S. Digit )

Step ( c ) gives the answer 72


Example 2: 15 x 99 Step ( a ) : 15 – 1 = 14

Step ( b ) : 99 – 14 = 85 ( or 100 – 15 )

Step ( c ) : 15 x 99 = 1485

Note the process : The multiplicand has to be reduced by 1 to obtain the LHS and the rightside is mechanically obtained by the subtraction of the L.H.S from the multiplier which is practically a direct application of Nikhilam Sutra.

Now by Nikhilam

24 – 1 = 23 L.H.S.

x 99 – 23 = 76 R.H.S. (100–24)


23 / 76 = 2376


11. Anurupyena

The upa-Sutra ‘anurupyena’ means ‘proportionality’. This Sutra is highly useful to find products of two numbers when both of them are near the Common bases i.e powers of base 10 . It is very clear that in such cases the expected ‘Simplicity ‘ in doing problems is absent.

Example 1: 46 X 43

As per the previous methods, if we select 100 as base we get 46 -54 This is much more difficult and of no use.

43 -57



Now by ‘anurupyena’ we consider a working base In three ways. We can solve the problem.

Method 1: Take the nearest higher multiple of 10. In this case it is 50.

Treat it as 100 / 2 = 50. Now the steps are as follows:

i) Choose the working base near to the numbers under consideration. i.e., working base is 100 / 2 = 50

ii) Write the numbers one below the other

i.e. 4 6

4 3


iii) Write the differences of the two numbers respectively from 50 against each number on right side

i.e. 46 -04

43 -07


iv) Write cross-subtraction or cross- addition as the case may be under the line drawn.

v) Multiply the differences and write the product in the left side of the answer.

46 -04

43 -07


39 / -4 x –7

= 28

vi) Since base is 100 / 2 = 50 , 39 in the answer represents 39X50.

Hence divide 39 by 2 because 50 = 100 / 2

Thus 39 ÷ 2 gives 19½ where 19 is quotient and 1 is remainder . This 1 as

Reminder gives one 50 making the L.H.S of the answer 28 + 50 = 78(or

Remainder ½ x 100 + 28 ) i.e. R.H.S 19 and L.H.S 78 together give the answer1978 We represent it as

46 -04

43 -07


2) 39 / 28


19½ / 28

= 19 / 78 = 1978

Example 2: 42 X 48.

With 100 / 2 = 50 as working base, the problem is as follows:

42 -08

48 -02


2) 40 / 16


20 / 16

42 x 48 = 2016

Method 2: For the example 1: 46X43. We take the same working base 50. We treat it as 50=5X10. i.e. we operate with 10 but not with 100 as in method  now

(195 + 2) / 8 = 1978

[Since we operate with 10, the R.H.S portion shall have only unit place .Hence out of the product 28, 2 is carried over to left side. The L.H.S portion of the answer shall be multiplied by 5, since we have taken 50 = 5 X 10.]

Now in the example 2: 42 x 48 we can carry as follows by treating 50 = 5 x 10

12. Adyamadyenantya – mantyena

The Sutra ‘ adyamadyenantya-mantyena’ means ‘the first by the first and the last by the last’. Suppose we are asked to find out the area of a rectangular card board whose length and breadth are respectively 6ft . 4 inches and 5 ft. 8 inches. Generally we continue the problem like this.

Area = Length X Breath

= 6’ 4″ X 5’ 8″ Since 1’ = 12″, conversion

= ( 6 X 12 + 4) ( 5 X 12 + 8) in to single unit

= 76″ 68″ = 5168 Sq. inches.

Since 1 sq. ft. =12 X 12 = 144sq.inches we have area

5168 = 144) 5168 (35


144 432



720 i.e., 35 Sq. ft 128 Sq. inches



By Vedic principles we proceed in the way “the first by first and the last by last”

i.e. 6’ 4″ can be treated as 6x + 4 and 5’ 8″ as 5x + 8,

Where x= 1ft. = 12 in;x2

is sq. ft.

Now ( 6x + 4 )(5x + 8 )

= 30×2

+ 6.8.x + 4.5.x + 32

= 30×2

+ 48x + 20x + 32

= 30×2

+ 68. x + 32

= 30×2

+ ( 5x + 8 ). x + 32 Writing 68 = 5 x 12 + 8

= 35×2

+ 8. x + 32

= 35 Sq. ft. + 8 x 12 Sq. in + 32 Sq. in

= 35 Sq. ft. + 96 Sq. in + 32 Sq. in

= 35 Sq. ft. + 128 Sq. in


13. Yavadunam Tavadunikrtya Varganca Yojayet

The meaning of the Sutra is ‘what ever the deficiency subtract that deficit from the number and write along side the square of that deficit’.

This Sutra can be applicable to obtain squares of numbers close to bases of powers of 10.

Method-1 : Numbers near and less than the bases of powers of 10.

Eg 1: 92

Here base is 10.

The answer is separated in to two parts by a’/’

Note that deficit is 10 – 9 = 1

Multiply the deficit by itself or square it


= 1. As the deficiency is 1, subtract it from the number i.e., 9–1 = 8.

Now put 8 on the left and 1 on the right side of the vertical line or slash i.e., 8/1.

Hence 81 is answer.

Eg. 2: 962

Here base is 100.

Since deficit is 100-96=4 and square of it is 16 and the deficiency subtracted from the number 96 gives 96-4 = 92, we get the answer 92 / 16

Thus 962

= 9216.


14. Antyayor Dasakepi

The Sutra signifies numbers of which the last digits added up give 10. i.e. the Sutra works in multiplication of numbers for example: 25 and 25, 47 and 43, 62 and 68, 116 and 114. Note that in each case the sum of the last digit of first number to the last digit of second number is 10. Further the portion of digits or numbers left wards to the last digits remain the same. At that instant use

Ekadhikena on left hand side digits. Multiplication of the last digits gives the right hand part of the answer.

Example 1 : 47 X 43

See the end digits sum 7 + 3 = 10 ; then by the sutras antyayor dasakepi and ekadhikena we have the answer.

47 x 43 = ( 4 + 1 ) x 4/ 7 x 3

= 20 / 21

= 2021.

Example 2: 62 x 68

2 + 8 = 10, L.H.S. portion remains the same i.e.,, 6.

Ekadhikena of 6 gives 7

62 x 68 = ( 6 x 7 )/ ( 2 x 8 )

= 42 / 16

= 4216.

It is further interesting to note that the same rule works when the sum of the last 2, last 3, last 4 – - – digits added respectively equal to 100, 1000, 10000 — – - . The simple point to remember is to multiply each product by 10, 100, 1000, – - as the case may be . Your can observe that this is more convenient while working with the product of 3 digit numbers.

Eg. 1: 292 x 208

Here 92 + 08 = 100, L.H.S portion is same i.e. 2

292 x 208 = ( 2 x 3 )/ 92 x 8

60 / =736 ( for 100 raise the L.H.S. product by 0 )

= 60736.


15. Antyayoreva

‘Atyayoreva’ means ‘only the last terms’. This is useful in solving simple equations of the following type.

The type of equations are those whose numerator and denominator on the L.H.S. bearing the independent terms stand in the same ratio to each other as the entire numerator and the entire denominator of the R.H.S. stand to each other.

Let us have a look at the following example.

Example 1:

x2 + 2x + 7 x + 2

__________ = _____

x2 + 3x + 5 x + 3

In the conventional method we proceed as

x2 + 2x + 7 x + 2

__________ = _____

x2 + 3x + 5 x + 3

(x + 3) (x2 + 2x + 7) = (x + 2) (x2 + 3x + 5)

x3 + 2×2 + 7x +3×2 + 6x + 21 = x3 + 3×2 + 5x + 2×2 +6x + 10

x3 + 5×2 + 13x + 21 = x3 + 5×2 + 11x+ 10

Canceling like terms on both sides

13x + 21 = 11x + 10

13x – 11x = 10 – 21

2x = -11

x = -11 / 2

Now we solve the problem using anatyayoreva.

x2 + 2x + 7 x + 2

__________ = _____

x2 + 3x + 5 x + 3



x2 + 2x + 7 x + 2

__________ = _____

x2 + 3x +5 x + 3

Observe that

x2 + 2x x (x + 2) x + 2

______ = ________ = _____

x2 + 3x x (x + 3) x + 3

This is according to the condition in the sutra. Hence from the sutra

x + 2 7

_____ = __

x + 3 5

5x + 10 = 7x + 21

7x – 5x = -21 + 10

2x = -11

x = -11 / 2

16. Lopana Sthapanabhyam

Lopana sthapanabhyam means ‘by alternate elimination and retention’. Consider the case of factorization of quadratic equation of type ax2 +by2 + cz2 +dxy + eyz + fzx This is a homogeneous equation of second degree in threevariables x, y, z. The sub-sutra removes the difficulty and makes thefactorization simple. The steps are as follows:

i) Eliminate z by putting z = 0 and retain x and y and factorize thus obtained aquadratic in x and y by means of ‘adyamadyena’ sutra.;

ii) Similarly eliminate y and retain x and z and factorize the quadratic in x and z.

iii) With these two sets of factors, fill in the gaps caused by the elimination

process of z and y respectively. This gives actual factors of the expression.

Example 1: 3×2

+ 7xy + 2y2

+ 11xz + 7yz + 6z2


Step (i): Eliminate z and retain x, y; factorize


+ 7xy + 2y2

= (3x + y) (x + 2y)

Step (ii): Eliminate y and retain x, z; factorize


+ 11xz + 6z2

= (3x + 2z) (x + 3z)

Step (iii): Fill the gaps, the given expression

= (3x + y + 2z) (x + 2y + 3z)

Example 2: 12×2

+ 11xy + 2y2

- 13xz – 7yz +3z2


Step (i): Eliminate z i.e., z = 0; factorize


+ 11xy + 2y2

= (3x + 2y) (4x + y)

Step (ii): Eliminate y i.e., y = 0; factorize


- 13xz + 3z2

= (4x -3z) (3x – z)

Step (iii): Fill in the gaps; the given expression

= (4x + y – 3z) (3x + 2y – z)

Example 3: 3×2+6y2+2z2+11xy+7yz+6xz+19x+22y+13z+20

Step (i): Eliminate y and z, retain x and independent term

i.e., y = 0, z = 0 in the expression (E).

Then E = 3×2

+ 19x + 20 = (x + 5) (3x + 4)


Step (ii): Eliminate z and x, retain y and independent term

i.e., z = 0, x = 0 in the expression.

Then E = 6y2

+ 22y + 20 = (2y + 4) (3y + 5)

Step (iii): Eliminate x and y, retain z and independent term

i.e., x = 0, y = 0 in the expression.

Then E = 2z2

+ 13z + 20 = (z + 4) (2z + 5)

Step (iv): The expression has the factors (think of independent terms)

= (3x + 2y + z + 4) (x + 3y + 2z + 5).

In this way either homogeneous equations of second degree or general equations of second degree in three variables can be very easily solved by applying ‘adyamadyena’ and ‘lopanasthapanabhyam’ sutras.

17. Vilokanam

The Sutra ‘Vilokanam’ means ‘Observation’. Generally we come across problems which can be solved by mere observation. But we follow the same conventional procedure and obtain the solution. But the hint behind the Sutra enables us to observe the problem completely and find the pattern and finally solve the problem by just observation.

Let us take the equation x + ( 1/x ) = 5/2 Without noticing the logic in the problem, the conventional process tends us to solve the problem in the following way.

1 5 x + __ = __ x 2 x2 + 1 5

_____ = __

x 2 2×2 + 2 = 5x 2×2 – 5x + 2 = 0

2×2 – 4x – x + 2 = 0

2x (x – 2) – (x – 2) = 0

(x – 2) (2x – 1) = 0

x – 2 = 0 gives x = 2

2x – 1 = 0 gives x = ½

But by Vilokanam i.e.,, observation

1 5 x + __ = __ can be viewed as x 2 1 1

x + __ = 2 + __ giving x = 2 or ½. x 2

Consider some examples.

Example 1 :

x x + 2 34

____ + _____ = ___

x + 2 x 15


In the conventional process, we have to take L.C.M, cross-multiplication.

simplification and factorization. But Vilokanam gives

34 9 + 25 3 5

__ = _____ = __ + __

15 5 x 3 5 3

x x + 2 3 5

____ + _____ = __ +__

x + 2 x 5 3


x 3 5

_____ = __ or __

x + 2 5 3

5x = 3x + 6 or 3x = 5x + 10

2x = 6 or -2x = 10

x = 3 or x = -5

Example 2 :

x + 5 x + 6 113

____ + _____ = ___

x + 6 x + 5 56


113 49 + 64 7 8

___ = _______ =___ + ___

56 7 x 8 8 7

x + 5 7 x+5 8

____ = __ or ____ = __

x + 6 8 x+6 7

8x + 40 = 7x+ 42 7x + 35 = 8x + 48


x = 42 – 40 =2 -x = 48 –35 = 13

x = 2 or x = -13.

8. Gunita Samuccayah : Samuccaya Gunitah

In connection with factorization of quadratic expressions a sub-Sutra, viz. ‘Gunita samuccayah-Samuccaya Gunitah’ is useful. It is intended for the purpose of verifying the correctness of obtained answers in multiplications, divisions and factorizations. It means in this context:

‘The product of the sum of the coefficients sc in the factors is equal to the sum of the coefficients sc in the product’ Symbolically we represent as sc of the product = product of the sc (in the factors)

Example 1: (x + 3) (x + 2) = x2 + 5x + 6

Now ( x + 3 ) ( x + 2 ) = 4 x 3 = 12 : Thus verified.

Example 2: (x – 4) (2x + 5) = 2×2 – 3x – 20

Sc of the product 2 – 3 – 20 = – 21

Product of the Sc = (1 – 4) (2 + 5) = (-3) (7) = – 21. Hence verified.

In case of cubics, biquadratics also the same rule applies.

We have (x + 2) (x + 3) (x + 4) = x3 +9×2 + 26x + 24

Sc of the product = 1 + 9 + 26 + 24 = 60

Product of the Sc = (1 + 2) (1 + 3) (1 + 4) = 3 x 4 x 5 = 60. Verified.

So far we have considered a majority of the upa-sutras as mentioned in the

Vedic mathematics book. Only a few Upa-Sutras are not dealt under a separate

heading . They are





10) SAMUCCAYAGUNITAH already find place in respective places.




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General procedure for conducting the interview


Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India


Interviewers now are increasingly seen as active participants in interactions with respondents, and interviews are seen as negotiated accomplishments of both interviewers and respondents that are shaped by the contexts and situations in which they take place. In other words, researchers are not visible, neutral entities; rather, they are part of the interactions they seek to study and influence those interactions. The interviewer’s role is complex and multifaceted. It includes the following tasks:

  • Clarifying any confusion/concerns – Interviewers have to be able to think on their feet. Interviewee may raise objections or concerns that were not anticipated. The interviewer has to be able to respond candidly and informatively.
  • Conducting a good interview – The interviewer has to conduct a good interview. Every interview has a life of its own. Some respondents are motivated and attentive, others are distracted or disinterested. The interviewer also has good or bad days. Assuring a consistently high-quality interview is a challenge that requires constant effort.
  • Identifying and gaining cooperation of Interviewee – The interviewer has to find the respondent. In door-to-door surveys, this means being able to locate specific addresses. Often, the interviewer has to work at the least desirable times as that’s when respondents are most readily available.
  • Motivating Interviewee – The interviewer has to be motivated and has to be able to communicate that motivation to the respondent. Often, this means that the interviewer has to be convinced of the importance of the research
  • Observing the quality of responses – Whether the interview is personal or over the phone, the interviewer is in the best position to judge the quality of the information that is being received. Even a verbatim transcript will not adequately convey how seriously the respondent took the task, or any gestures or body language that was evident.

Training the Interviewers

One of the most important aspects of any interview study is the training of the interviewers themselves. In many ways the interviewers end being the measures, and the quality of the results is totally in their hands. Even in small studies involving only a single researcher-interviewer, it is important to organize in detail and rehearse the interviewing process before beginning the formal study.

Following major consideration should be addressed for interviewer training:

  • Building the Interviewer’s Kit – It’s important that interviewers have all of the materials they need to do a professional job. Usually, one will want to assemble an interviewer kit that can be easily carried and includes all of the important materials such as: A “professional-looking” 3-ring notebook (this might even have the logo of the company or organization conducting the interviews) maps sufficient copies of the survey instrument official identification (preferable a picture ID) a cover letter from the Principal Investigator or Sponsor a phone number the respondent can call to verify the interviewer’s authenticity.
  • Communicating the sponsor of research – Interviewers need to know who they are working for. They — and their respondents — have a right to know not just what agency or company is conducting the research, but also, how the research is paid for.
  • Describing the entire study – Interviewers need to know more than simply how to conduct the interview itself. They should learn about the background for the study, previous work that has been done, and why the study is important.
  • Educating the sampling logic and process – Naive interviewers may not understand why sampling is so important. They may wonder why one goes through all the difficulties of selecting the sample so carefully. They should be explained that sampling is the basis for the conclusions that will be reached and for the degree to which the study will be useful.
  • Explaining interviewer bias – Interviewers need to know the many ways that they can inadvertently bias the results. And, they need to understand why it is important that they not bias the study. This is especially a problem when you are investigating political or moral issues on which people have strongly held convictions. While the interviewer may think they are doing well for society by slanting results in favor of what they believe, they need to recognize that doing so could jeopardize the entire study in the eyes of others.
  • Explaining respondent selection procedures, including reading maps – It’s astonishing how many adults don’t know how to follow directions on a map. In personal interviews, the interviewer may need to locate respondents who are spread over a wide geographic area. And, they often have to navigate by night (respondents tend to be most available in evening hours) in neighborhoods they’re not familiar with. Teaching basic map reading skills and confirming that the interviewers can follow maps is essential.
  • Explaining scheduling – The interviewers have to understand the demands being made on their schedules and why these are important to the study. In some studies it will be imperative to conduct the entire set of interviews within a certain time period. In most studies, it’s important to have the interviewers available when it’s convenient for the respondents, not necessarily the interviewer.
  • Explaining supervision – In most interview studies, the interviewers will work under the direction of a supervisor. In some contexts, the supervisor may be a faculty advisor; In order to assure the quality of the responses, the supervisor may have to observe a subsample of interviews, listen in on phone interviews, or conduct follow-up assessments of interviews with the respondents. This can be very threatening to the interviewers. One needs to develop an atmosphere where everyone on the research team — interviewers and supervisors — feels like they’re working together towards a common goal.
  • Identifying respondents – Just as with households, many studies require respondents who meet specific criteria. For instance, your study may require that you speak with a male head-of-house between the ages of 30 and 50 who has children under 20 living in the same household. It may be impossible to obtain statistics in advance to target such respondents. The interviewer may have to ask a series of filtering questions before determining whether the respondent meets the sampling needs.
  • Piloting the interview – When one first introduces the interview, it’s a good idea to walk through the entire protocol so the interviewers can get an idea of the various parts or phases and how they interrelate.
  • Rehearsing the interview – Several rehearsal sessions should be conducted with the interviewer team.  Videotaping of rehearsal interviews can be done to discuss how the trainees responded in difficult situations. The interviewers should be very familiar with the entire interview before ever facing a respondent.
  • Teaching about survey research – While you seldom have the time to teach a full course on survey research methods, the interviewers need to know enough that they respect the survey method and are motivated. Sometimes it may not be apparent why a question or set of questions was asked in a particular way. The interviewers will need to understand the rationale for how the instrument was constructed.

The Actual Interview

Each interview is unique, like a small work of art whether it’s a two-minute phone interview or a personal interview that spans hours, the interview is a bit of theater, a mini-drama that involves real lives in real time.

Each interview has its own ebb and flow — its own pace. To the outsider, an interview looks like a fairly standard, simple, prosaic effort.  But to the interviewer, it can be filled with special nuances and interpretations that aren’t often immediately apparent. Every interview includes some common components. There’s the opening act, where the interviewer gains entry and establishes the rapport and tone for what follows. There’s the middle act, the heart of the process that consists of the protocol of questions and the improvisations of the probe. And finally, there’s the closing act, the wrap-up, where the interviewer and respondent establish a sense of closure.

The Opening Act

  • Reciting the “Elevator Speech” – In many ways, the interviewer has the same initial problem that a salesperson has.  They will have to get the respondent’s attention initially for a long enough periods that they can sell them on the idea of participating in the study. Many of the remarks here assume an interview that is being conducted at a respondent’s residence.  The analogies to other interview contexts should be straightforward.
  • Gaining entry – The first thing the interviewer must do is gain entry. Several factors can enhance the prospects. Probably the most important factor is one’s initial appearance. The interviewer needs to dress professionally and in a manner that will be comfortable to the respondent. In some contexts a business suit and briefcase may be appropriate. In others, it may intimidate. The way the interviewer appears initially to the respondent has to communicate some simple messages — that they are trustworthy, honest, and non-threatening. Cultivating a manner of professional confidence, the sense that the respondent has nothing to worry about because one knows what they are
  • Introducing – Without waiting for the respondent to ask questions, one should move to introducing themselves. They should have this part of the process memorized so that they can deliver the essential information in 20-30 seconds at most. State the name of the organization represented. Show identification badge and the letter of introduction.  Have as legitimate an appearance as possible. If one has a three-ring binder or clipboard with the logo of organization, have it out and visible.
  • Explaining the study – At this point in time briefly explain the study.  Keep it short, one or two sentence description of the study. Big words, jargon and unnecessary details should be avoided.  The respondent doesn’t have to or want to know all of the neat nuances of this study, Some time should be spent on assuring the respondent that they are being interviewed confidentially, and that their participation is voluntary.
  • Using questionnaire intelligently – The questionnaire is a friend. It was developed with a lot of care and thoughtfulness. While one has to be ready to adapt to the needs of the setting, the first instinct should always be to trust the instrument that was designed. A rapport need to establish with the respondent. Reading the questions directly from the questionnaire will appear unprofessional and disinterested. Often, there might be nervousness on both parties that should be addressed carefully. Memorizing the first few questions, and referring to the instrument only occasionally, using eye contact and a confident manner will help set the tone for the interview and help the respondent get comfortable.
  • Asking questions – Sometimes an interviewer will think that they could improve on the tone of a question by altering a few words to make it simpler or more “friendly.”  This should be avoided.  The questions should be asked as they are on the instrument.  If there was a problem with a question, it should have been raised during the training and rehearsals, not during the actual interview. It is important that the interview be as standardized as possible across respondents There might be temptation for one to think the change made while asking the questions are inconsequential, in fact, it may change the entire meaning of the question or response.
  • Sequencing – During the interview, it may happen that a respondent bring up a topic that will be covered later in the interview. The jump to that section of the interview should be avoided.  It is likely that one may lose the place where the order was interrupted and result in omitting questions that build a foundation for later questions.
  • Elaborating – Just to encourage the respondent to give more information ask for elaboration. For instance, it is appropriate to ask questions like “Would you like to elaborate on that?” or “Is there anything else you would like to add?”
  • Obtaining Adequate Responses – After asking a question, probe. If the respondent gives a brief, cursory answer. Just to elicit a more thoughtful, thorough response? Just probe.  Silent probe – The most effective way to encourage someone to elaborate is to do nothing at all – just pause and wait. This is referred to as the “silent” probe. It works because the respondent is uncomfortable with pauses or silence. It suggests to the respondent that the interviewer is waiting, listening for what they will say next.
  • Repeating – Use the old psychotherapist technique.  Say something without really saying anything new. For instance, the respondent just described a interesting experience they had. Just say “What heard you say is that you found that experience very interesting.” Then, just pause. The respondent is likely to say something like “Well, yes, and it gave me a unique experience, even my family enjoyed it. In fact, my wife…”
  • Encouraging the Respondent explicitly – Often, encouraging the respondent directly is required to obtain best answers. It should be done in a way that does not imply approval or disapproval of what they said as it could bias their subsequent results. Overt encouragement could be as simple as saying “Uh-huh” or “OK” after the respondent completes a thought.
  • Clarifying – Sometimes, just to elicit greater detail ask the respondent to clarify something that was said earlier.  For example, say, “You just were talking about your interesting experience; can you tell me more about that?”
  • Recording the Response – Although we have the capability to record a respondent in audio and/or video, most interview methodologists don’t think it’s a good idea. Respondents are often uncomfortable when they know their remarks will be recorded word-for-word.  They may strain to only say things in a socially acceptable way. Although one would get a more detailed and accurate record, it is likely to be distorted by the very process of obtaining it. This may be more of a problem in some situations than in others. It is increasingly common to be told that your conversation may be recorded during a phone interview. And most focus group methodologies use unobtrusive recording equipment to capture what’s being said. But, in general, personal interviews are still best when recorded by the interviewer using the traditional pen and paper approach.
  • Recording responses immediately – The interviewer should record responses as they are being stated. This conveys the idea that the interviewer is interested enough in what the respondent is saying. Record certain key phrases or quotes verbatim. Develop a system for distinguishing what the respondent says verbatim from what are characterizing.
  • Including information obtained through probing – One needs to indicate every single probe that one uses. Developing shorthand for different standard probes are helpful.
  • Using abbreviations or other techniques to record expediently – Abbreviations will help to capture more of the discussion. Develop a standardized system. If an abbreviation is created while the interview is happening, have a way of indicating its origin.

The Middle Act and The Closing Act

After going through the entire interview, the interview needs to be brought to closure. Some important things must be remembered:

  • Thanking the respondent – This is important. Even if the respondent was troublesome or uninformative, it is important to be polite and thank them for their time.
  • Setting expectations on when the results would be published – It is annoying, when people conduct interviews and then don’t send results and summaries to the people who they get the information from. The interviewer owes it to the respondent to show them what the interviewer has learned. It’s common practice to prepare a short, readable, jargon-free summary of interviews that the interviewer can send to the respondents.
  • Closing the conversation – Allow for a few minutes of winding down conversation. The respondent may want to know a little bit about the interviewer or how much the interviewer likes doing this kind of work. They may be interested in how the results will be used. Use these kinds of interests as a way to wrap up the conversation..  The interviewer doesn’t want the respondent to feel as though they completed the interview and then rushed out on them — they may wonder what they said that was wrong. On the other hand, the interviewer has to be careful here. Some respondents may want to keep on talking long after the interview is over. Interviewers have to find a way to politely cut off the conversation and make their exit.
  • Documenting Immediately after completing the interview – Write down any notes about how the interview went.  Sometimes one will have observations about the interview that they didn’t want to write down while they were with the respondent.  The interviewer may have noticed them get upset at a question, or they may have detected hostility in a response. Immediately after the interview interviewers should go over your notes and make any other comments and observations

Analyzing the Interview Results

After creating and conducting interview, one must now process and analyze the results. These steps require strict attention to detail and, in some cases, knowledge of statistics and computer software packages. How these steps should be conducted will depend on the scope of study, and the audience to whom one wish to direct the work.

In general there are obviously advantages and disadvantages for using any interview method. It allows questioning to be guided as one wants it and can clarify points that need to be made clearer much more easily than in something like a mailed questionnaire. The technique does however rely on the respondent being willing to give accurate and complete answers  They may often lie due to feelings of embarrassment, inadequacy, lack of knowledge on the topic, nervousness, memory loss or confusion. On the contrary, they may also provide very elaborate answers in an attempt to figure out the purpose of the study. Validity and reliability of the interview data may be influenced by these interviewing is a complex and demanding technique.


Bell, J (1999) Doing Your Research Project (3rd edition), Buckingham, OUP

Clough, P & Nutbrown, C (2002) A Student’s Guide to Methodology, London

Cohen, L ; Manion, L & Morrison, K (2000) Research Methods in Education (5th edition), London

Routledge Falmer Denscombe, M (2003) The Good Research Guide: 2nd edition, Buckingham

Frey, J.H & S.M.Oishi (1995): How to Conduct Interviews by Telephone and in Person. London: Sage.

Pollard, A (1985) The Social World of the Primary School, London, Cassell.

Radnor, H (1994) Collecting & Analysing Interview Data, University of Exeter, Research Support Unit, School of Education.

Steinar Kvale, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks California, 1996

Wengraf, T (2001) Qualitative Research Interviewing, London, Sage.

Wragg, E C (1978) Conducting and Analyzing Interviews, Nottingham University School of Education, TRC-Rediguides.



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Entering behavior and Terminal behavior in Lesson planning

Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D

Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India

According to Bining and Bining “Daily lesson planning involves defining the objective, selecting and arranging the subject matter and determining the method and procedure

Learner behaviour comprises collective activities displayed by the learner. Learner behaviour is different at the point in time they begin to participate in the teaching-learning process, it varies during the process and finally, at the end of the process. For our purpose, we are concerned with entry and terminal beaviour, which are assessed by the teacher .

The  Entering behavior

Entering behavior describes the student level before the instruction begins. It refers to what the student has previously learned, his intellectual ability and development, his motivational state, and certain social and cultural determinants of his learning ability. Entering behavior is a more precise term than its usual alternatives—human ability, individual differences, and readiness. This precision may come at the price of seeing the student as less complex, less able, and less experienced than he may in fact be.

Schools tend to define entering behavior in terms of the traditions curriculum rather than in terms of student ability, experience, and interest. A student with the more abstractive ability and interest of the mathematician, therefore, may be viewed as having a higher level entering behavior than that of a student whose major interest and ability are in creating the visual, geometric forms of modern painting and sculpture.

Entry behaviour includes the prerequisite knowledge, attitudes or skills which the student already possesses that are relevant to the learning task or subject matter and that you may require students to demonstrate before beginning your module. This includes previous education and experience that the student brings to the new learningcontext. The ultimate goal of the module being to advance the student from where he is (entry behaviour) to where you would like him to be (having mastered the learning objectives or terminal behaviour).

There are many potential influences on student behaviour, and many factors should be considered before determining the  entering behaviour . These include:

  • biophysical factors, such as medical conditions or disabilities
  • psychological factors, including emotional trauma or lack of social skills
  • behavioural/social factors, including where a student’s problem behaviour has been learned through reinforcement, consequences or adaptation to social practices. For example, a student with a learning difficulty repeatedly misbehaves knowing that he/she will be removed from the class and this will avoid his/her learning difficulty being exposed.
  • historical community factors, including for Koorie students whose family member/s had difficult, sometimes traumatic, experiences of school and government agencies
  • cultural factors, for example dalit community
  • environmental factors, for example the level of classroom noise or classroom seating arrangements
  • classroom organisation issues, such as inconsistent routines, inadequate materials or obliviousness to cultural differences

Listing Entry Behaviors

To determine the entry behavior, test a small sample of the learners to establish if your assumption of their threshold knowledge and the starting point of the training program are correct.

The proposed learners have the needed  to master the terminal learning objective in the training program, ensure  their previous knowledge.

For example, an instructional program might instruct several advanced uses of learning strategies. These basic strategies should be tested on a sample of the learners to validate the instructional plan assumption.

Once you have tested their present previous knowledge status , then the tasks to be taught should be tested on a small sample  students.

Finally, a sample of the proposed learners are tested to see if they can pass any portions of the test without any instruction to ensure you are not teaching them what they already know.

This process helps you to ensure  that presenting the instructional content to the learners in a manner that allows them to build upon previous content (what they already know).

Motivation is also tied closely with what they think their teachers want them to do — they perform the things they know their teacher notice and tend to neglect the things their teacher do not care about. Thus, it is not only important that they have the basic requirements before entering a learning platform, but that they are also motivated to learn.

The Terminal behavior

in modem education one often hears of the concept terminal behavior this is a term supplied from the field of psychology which reflects the belief that the measure of any successful educational activity is the degree to which the students behavior is modified to what extent does he do or  do things he did not or could not before the lessons were presented.

Desired final behavior being shaped by a training or learning process, and which the trainee or learner is to demonstrate at the end of the process.

Describing terminal behavior has two purposes. First, the teacher has a means for assessing the adequacy of the performance and for determining the need for further instruction. The teacher at a given point in time may not desire that the students for completely able to identify and use the concept. The prior description of the students’ expected performance  clearly indicates to the teacher and to the students the degree of adequacy the students are to attain at a particular time. Second, the students have a way of assessing their own performance and of determining when their learning is complete. The students’ self-assessments then become a way of generation their own reinforcement.

A three components learning objective format consists of the terminal behavior, the conditions and the standard. Terminal behavior describes what the learner should be able to do in order to demonstrate that s(he) achieve the objective. The terminal behavior is any performance that can be observed or recorded. Terminal behaviour should be expressed using action verbs. If the behavioral component is missing it is difficult to measure whether the student has achieved an instructional goal. The terminal behavior should describe different cognitive processes – remembering, understanding, applying, problem solving etc, that leads to the different level of accomplishment.

The standard property of learning objective formulation describes the minimal accepted level of performance at the end of the instruction. The standard is a kind of proof that a learner is achieved at the objective. The type of standard selected depends on the specificity of the terminal behaviour. It could be occurrence of behaviour, time, speed, accuracy, reference, consequences, etc.

Terminal behavior usually refers to something very specific-for example the teacher may say “I want to see everyone reading quietly for the next five minutes”-and includes what can be termed the “form and frequency of a desired response” (Ormrod & Rice, 2003, p. 71). In the earlier example of students lining up, the teacher’s desired terminal behavior may be something similar to “I want all of my students to quietly line up within one minute of my first asking them to do so.”

Terminal behavior can be quite difficult to achieve. If, at the beginning of the school year, the class typically took ten minutes or more to line up, getting to the terminal behavior can be quite a feat. The operant conditioning theory keeps this in mind and recommends the use of shaping to gradually achieve the terminal behavior. Shaping is especially useful when an individual’s baseline behavior is very low. In the process of developing the desired terminal behavior plan, the teacher should develop a set of reference points that show that the student is progressing towards the terminal behavior. Instead of focusing on the terminal behavior, the teacher should reinforce each successive benchmark. Once behavior at one level comes “naturally” or without reinforcement, the teacher should start reinforcing at the levels that bring the student closer to the terminal behavior  In the example of lining up, the teacher may begin by first reinforcing how students behave in the line, and later focus on reducing the amount of time it takes students to respond to the request to line up.

Describing terminal behavior has two purposes. First, the teacher has a means for assessing the adequacy of the performance and for determining the need for further instruction. The teacher at a given point in time may not desire that the students for completely able to identify and use the concept. In the beginning, for example, the teacher may be quite satisfied to have the students recognize direct objects only in simple English sentences. Later, he may want the students to recognize direct objects in compound sentences in both dependent and independent clauses. Still later he may want the students to use direct objects in various sentence contexts. The prior description of the students’ expected performance  clearly indicates to the teacher and to the students the degree of adequacy the students are to attain at a particular time. Second, the students have a way of assessing their own performance and of determining when their learning is complete. The students’ self-assessments then become a way of generation their own reinforcement.

To conclude it can be said that More simply, entering behavior describes the present status of the student’s knowledge and skill in reference to a future status the teacher wants him to attain. Entering behavior, therefore, is where the instruction must always begin. Terminal behavior is where the instruction concludes.. This way the teaching can be described as getting the student from where he is to where we would like him to be- as moving from entering to terminal behavior. Together descriptions of entering and terminal behavior define the limits of instructional responsibility for each degree of teaching.

Entry behaviour includes the prerequisite knowledge, attitudes or skills which the student already possesses that are relevant to the learning task or subject matter and that you may require students to demonstrate before beginning your module. This includes previous education and experience that the student brings to the new learning context. The ultimate purpose is  to advance the student from where he is (entry behaviour) to where you would like him to be (having mastered the learning objectives or terminal behaviour).

Entry behaviour comprises the activities/responses of the learners prior to the teaching-learning process. The prior knowledge of learners, their interests, attitudes, abilities, etc make up the entry behaviour of students. Terminal behaviour comprises the activities/responses displayed by learners after the completion of the teaching-learning process. Thus the change in behaviour after the teaching-learning process will make up the terminal behaviour.





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Philosophy of Existentialism – An Introduction


Dr. V.K. Maheshwari, Former Principal

K.L.D.A.V(P.G) College, Roorkee, India.

In short, Existentialism is an attitude and outlook that emphasizes human existence, the qualities of individual persons rather than man in abstract of nature and the world in general. Education, therefore, must edify and enrich man’s mind so that it may be respectable in his own eyes and in the eyes of the, others. It should help him to make him human.

Existentialism is the most individualistic of all modern philosophies. Its overriding concern is with the individual and its primary value is the absolute freedom of the person, who is only what he, makes himself to be, and who is the final and exclusive arbiter of the values he freely determines for himself. Great emphasis is placed on art, on literature, and the humanistic studies, for it is in these areas that man finds himself and discovers what values he will seek to attain.

The term “existentialism” seems to have been coined by the French philosopher Gabriel Marcel  and adopted by Jean-Paul Sartre, Etymological meaning of ‘existence’ from two German words -: ‘ex-sistent’ meaning that which stands out, that which ‘emerges’ suggests that existentialism is a philosophy that emerges out of problems of life.

Existentialism in the broader sense is a 20th century philosophy that is centered upon the analysis of existence and of the way humans find themselves existing in the world. The notion is that humans exist first and then each individual spends a lifetime changing their essence or nature.

In simpler terms, existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility. The belief is that people are searching to find out who and what they are throughout life as they make choices based on their experiences, beliefs, and outlook. And personal choices become unique without the necessity of an objective form of truth. An existentialist believes that a person should be forced to choose and be responsible without the help of laws, ethnic rules, or traditions.

Initially Existentialism may appear to be a morbid philosophy because it deals with depressing themes such as alienation, anxiety, death and crises. To conclude this however, would be to misunderstand it. An expressed purpose of so many of the philosophers, who have contributed to this school of thought, is to allow people to experience a greater richness and happiness in their lives and to feel at ‘home’ in their world. In order to achieve a richer and more valuable existence however, the philosophy often refers to some ‘uncomfortable’ suggestions

Just as the whole of Indian philosophy is an extension, interpretation, criticism and corroboration of the Vedas and in it the Upanishads or an outright revolt against them, similarly it may be remarked of western philosophy as either a clarification of Socrates or his rejection. One would be still right in saying that the whole of western philosophy is an appendix on Socrates. So it is even true with existentialism that Socrates has been considered to be the first existentialist. Socrates statement: “I am and always have been a man to obey nothing in my nature except the reasoning which upon reflection, appears to be the best.” Right from Plato down to Descartes, the majority of western thinkers have believed in the immutability of ideas and the rest of the thinkers have been suggesting correctives to it. Anyhow their frame of reference has always been ‘Essence Precedes Existence’, essence being referred to ideas, values, ideals, thoughts, etc. and existence being referred to our lives.

Emergence of Existentialism as a movement

Modern existentialism reproduced such ideas and combined them in more or less coherent ways. Human existence is, for all the forms of existentialism, the projection of the future on the basis of the possibilities that constitute it. For some existentialists , the existential possibilities, inasmuch as they are rooted in the past, merely lead every project for the future back to the past, so that only what has already been chosen can be chosen . For others , the possibilities that are offered to existential choice are infinite and equivalent, such that the choice between them is indifferent; and for still others , the existential possibilities are limited by the situation, but they neither determine the choice nor render it indifferent. The issue is one of individuating, in every concrete situation and by means of a specific inquiry, the real possibilities offered to humans. For all the existentialists, however, the choice among possibilities—i.e., the projection of existence—implies risks, renunciation, and limitation. Among the risks, the most serious is the descent into inauthenticity or alienation, the degradation from being a person into being a thing. Against that risk, for the theological forms of existentialism , there is the guarantee of transcendent help from God, which in its turn is guaranteed by faith.

Existentialism, consequently, by insisting on the individuality and nonrepeatability of existence , is sometimes led to regard one’s coexistence with other humans (held to be, however, an ineluctable fact of the human situation) as a condemnation or alienation of humanity. Marcel said that all that exists in society beyond the individual is “expressible by a minus sign,” and Sartre affirmed, in his major work , that “the Other is the hidden death of my possibilities.” For other forms of existentialism, however, a coexistence that is not anonymous  but grounded on personal communication is the condition of authentic existence.

Existentialism has had ramifications in various areas of contemporary culture. In literature, Franz Kafka, author of haunting novels, walking in Kierkegaard’s footsteps, described human existence as the quest for a stable, secure, and radiant reality that continually eludes it  or as threatened by a guilty verdict about which it knows neither the reason nor the circumstances but against which it can do nothing—a verdict that ends with death .

The theses of contemporary existentialism were then diffused and popularized by the novels and plays of Sartre and by the writings of the French novelists and dramatists Simone de Beauvoir—an important philosopher of existentialism in her own right—and Albert Camus.

Existentialism made its entrance into psychopathology through Jaspers’s Allgemeine Psychopathologie (1913; General Psychopathology), which was inspired by the need to understand the world in which the mental patient lives by means of a sympathetic participation in his experience. Later, the Swiss psychiatrist Ludwig Binswanger, in one of his celebrated works), inspired by Heidegger’s thought, viewed the origin of mental illness as a failure in the existential possibilities that constitute human existence. From Jaspers and Binswanger, the existentialist current became diffused and variously stated in contemporary psychiatry.

In theology, Barth started the “Kierkegaard revival,” the emblem of which was expressed by Barth himself; it is “the relation of this God with this man; the relation of this man with this God—this is the only theme of the Bible and of philosophy.” Within the bounds of that current, on the one hand, there was an insistence upon the absolute transcendence of God with respect to the individual, who could place himself in relationship with God only by denying himself and by abandoning himself to a gratuitously granted faith. On the other hand, there was the requirement to demythologize the religious content of faith, particularly of the Christian faith, in order to allow the message of the eschatological event (of salvation) to emerge from among human existential possibilities.

Theoretical Rationale of Existentialism

Rather than attempt to define existentialism (which existentialists themselves maintain is futile it might to be better to determine what the task of philosophy is according to the proponents of this school of thought. First of all, the existentialist does not concern himself with problems concerning the nature, origin, and destiny of the physical universe. The philosopher should not even concern himself with the basic assumptions of the physical or biological sciences.

Metaphysical Position

Concept of God

Frederic Nietzsche’s statement, “God is dead,” succinctly expresses the atheistic existentialist’s view on the issue of the existence of a supernatural realm. Nietzsche says: Where is God gone? I mean to tell you! We have killed him – you and I! Do we not here the noise of the grave – diggers who are burying God? God is dead! God remains dead! And we have killed! …. The holiest and the mightiest that the world has hitherto possessed had bled to death under our knife – …. What are our churches now, if they are not the tombs and monuments of God?

Assume that God exists and is all-powerful & all-knowing & all-good. Then also assume that evil exists in the world. Then God is either responsible for the existence of evil, in which case God is Himself evil & not all-good; or else God is not responsible for the existence of evil & yet knew that it was going to happen & couldn’t prevent it–so God is not all-powerful; or else God would have prevented evil but didn’t know it was going to happen, and is therefore not all-knowing. So given evil, God is either not all-good, not all-powerful, not all-knowing, or does not exist.

Concept of Self

Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself. Such is the first principle of existentialism.” Jean Paul Sartre

The very question of the nature of man is a meaningless one for the existentialist. In both of the sections above it was emphasized that man has no “nature” as such but rather that he must create his own essence. The uniqueness of man comes from his emotions, feelings, perception and thinking. The philosophy of existentialism stresses meaning, only through development of meaning in his life; man can make something of the absurdity which surrounds him. Man is the maker, and, therefore, the master of culture. It is man who imposes a meaning on his universe, although that universe may well function without him. Man cannot be ‘taught’ what the world is about. He must create this for himself.

Man is not alone in the world. He is connected to other men; he communicates with others; therefore, he cannot live in a state of anarchy. Life is seen as a gift, which, in part is a mystery. Man is free to choose commitments in life, in his choice, he becomes himself. He is the product of his choices. He is, therefore, an individual who is different from other persons.

Second, individual man is not bound to other men by any predetermined notion of brotherhood or by allegiance to a certain group. On the contrary, each man should express his freedom in the creation of his own selfhood, first by “withdrawing from the crowd,” and then by communicating only with those whom he personally chooses . Sartre feels that the entire network of social life is anti-individual. Churches, schools, political parties, and even the family tend to militate against man’s absolute freedom.

Epistemological position

The existentialist approach  to knowledge is known as the phenomenological method. The atheistic existentialists inherited this method from Husserl. It was adapted further by Heidegger and Sartre to suit their philosophy of “will and action,” especially as it concerns the individual… The phenomenological method consists in the expression of the experiences of consciousness through the media of ordinary language

Existentialists have given little attention to inductive reasoning. Science, they believe, has been one of the major dehumanizing forces in the modern world

In opposition to this cold impersonal approach to knowledge, the existentialist argues that true knowledge is “choosing, actions, living, and dying.”

Axiological position

Existential ethics

Kierkegaard reacted to this way of thinking by saying that it was up to the individual to find his or her own moral perfection and his or her own way there. “I must find the truth that is the truth for me . . . the idea for which I can live or die” he wrote.

Authenticity & human freedom

Existentialists have a special connotation of the Authentic man According to the existentialists, becoming authentic allows one to determine how things are to count towards one’s situation and how one is to act in relation to them.

Generally the existentialists consider authentic individuals to take responsibility for determining and choosing possibilities and not to simply become a determined product of a cultural moment. One can choose one’s own identity and possibilities rather than have these dictated by the crowd.

According to existential ethics the highest good for humans is “becoming an individual or “authenticity” = psychological coherence + integrity = not merely being alive but having a real life by being true to yourself

In authenticity & human unfreedom the failure to choose in this way, or the failure to take full responsibility for one’s choices, is “inauthenticity” = psychic incoherence + lack of integrity. Accordingly, the worst thing of all is in authenticity & unfreedom, so it is morally impermissible.

The very essence of good is choosing.It seems them, that man never chooses evil. A man “becomes a man” when he makes choice. When he makes choices he creates his own values. When he creates his own values, he creates his own being or essence.


Another distinctive feature of the aesthetical views of existentialists lies in their use of the art forms, especially literature, drama, and painting, as media for communicating philosophical doctrines.

Problems of existentialist philosophy

The key problems for existentialism are those of the individual himself, of his situation in the world, and of his more ultimate significance.

Humanity and human relationships

Existentialist anthropology is strictly connected with its ontology. The traditional distinction between mind and body (or soul and body) is completely eliminated; thus, the body is a lived-through experience that is an integral part of human existence in its relationship with the world. According to Sartre, “In each project of the For-itself, in each perception the body is there; it is the immediate Past in so far as it still touches on the Present which flees it.” As such, however, the body is not reduced to a datum of consciousness, to subjective representation. Consciousness, according to Sartre, is constant openness toward the world, a transcendent relationship with other beings and thereby with the in-itself. Consciousness is existence itself, or, as Jaspers says, it is “the manifestation of being.” In order to avoid any subjectivistic equivocation, Heidegger went so far as to renounce the use of the term consciousness, preferring the term Dasein, which is more appropriate for designating human reality in its totality. For the same reasons, the traditional opposition between subject and object, or between the self and the nonself, loses all sense. Dasein is always particular and individual. It is always a self; but it is also always a project of the world that includes the self, determining or conditioning its modes of being.

All of the existentialists are in agreement on the difficulty of communication—i.e., of well-grounded intersubjective relationships. Jaspers is perhaps the one to insist most on the relationship between truth and communication. Truths are and can be different from existence. But if fanaticism and dogmatism are avoided on the one hand while relativism and skepticism are avoided on the other, then the only other way is a constant confrontation between the different truths through an always more extended and deepened intersubjective communication.

Sartre, however, denied that there is authentic communication. According to him, consciousness is not only the nullification of things but also the nullification of the other person as other. To look at another person is to make of him a thing.

The human situation in the world

Heidegger pointed to the foundation of the intersubjective relationship in dread. When a person decides to escape from the banality of anonymous existence—which hides the nothingness of existence, or the nonreality of its possibilities, behind the mask of daily concerns—his understanding of that nothingness leads him to choose the only unconditioned and insurmountable possibility that belongs to him: death. The possibility of death, unlike the possibilities that relate him to other things and to other humans, isolates him. It is a certain possibility, not through its apodictic evidence but because it continuously weighs upon existence. To understand that possibility means to decide for it, to acknowledge “the possibility of the impossibility of any existence at all” and to live for death. The emotive tonality that accompanies such understanding is dread, through which the individual feels himself to be “face to face with the ‘nothing’ of the possible impossibility of [his] existence.”

But neither the understanding of death nor its emotive accompaniment opens up a specific task, a way to transform one’s own situation in the world. They enable one only to perceive the common destiny to which all humans are subject; and they offer, therefore, the possibility of remaining faithful to that destiny and of freely accepting the necessity that all humans have in common. In that fidelity consists the historicity of existence, which is the repetition of tradition, the return to the possibilities from which existence had earlier been constituted, the wanting for the future what has been in the past.

It has been said that a coherent existentialism should avoid the constant mortal leap between Being and Nothingness; should not confuse the problematic character of existence with the fall into factuality; should not confuse the finitude of possibilities with resignation to the situation, choice with determinism, freedom conditioned by the limits of the situation with the acknowledgment of the omnipresent necessity of the Whole. In that inquiry, it is held, existentialism could well benefit from a more attentive consideration of science, which it has viewed only as a preparatory, imperfect, and objectifying knowledge in comparison with the authentic understanding of Being, which it considers to be a more fundamental mode of the being of humans in the world. 

From that point of view, there is always a certain freedom in situations, although its degree varies from situation to situation.

Significance of Being and transcendence

Heidegger came more and more to insist on the massive presence of Being in the face of human existence, by attributing to Being all initiative and to humans only the possibility of abandoning themselves to Being and to the things that are the modes of the language of Being. For Heidegger, Being is interpreted better through the etymology of those words that designate the most common things of daily life than through the analysis of existential possibilities.

Problems of existentialist theology

Existentialism has a theological dimension. Jaspers, in his last writings, emphasized more and more the religious character of faith in transcendence. Faith is the way to withdraw from the world and to resume contact with the Being that is beyond the world. Faith is life itself, in that it returns to the encompassing Whole and allows itself to be guided and fulfilled by it. Jaspers even developed a theology of history. He spoke of an axial age, which he placed between the 8th and 2nd centuries BCE, the age in which the great religions and the great philosophers of the Orient arose—Confucius and Laozi, the Upanishads, Buddha, Zoroaster, the great prophets of Israel—and in Greece the age of Homer and of Classical philosophy as well as Thucydides and Archimedes. In that age, for the first time, humans became aware of Being in general, of themselves, and of their limits. The age in which humans now live, that of science and technology, is perhaps the beginning of a new axial age that is the authentic destiny of humans but a destiny that is far off and unimaginable.

For Bultmann, the theologian of the demythologization of Christianity, inauthentic existence is tied to the past, to fact, to the world, while authentic existence is open to the future, to the nonfact, to the nonworld—i.e., to the end of the world and to God. Thus, authentic existence is not the self-projection of humans in the world but, rather, the self-projection of humans in the love of and obedience to God. But that self-projection is no longer the work of human freedom; it is the saving event that enters miraculously through faith into the future possibilities of humans.

In such theological speculations and in others that are comparable, the common presupposition of the existentialists is recognized.

Kierkegaard had earlier distinguished three stages of existence between which there is neither development nor continuity but gaps and jumps: the aesthetic stage is the one in which one lives for the pleasure of the moment; the ethical stage is the one based on the stability and continuity of life in work and in matrimony; and the religious stage is the one characterized by faith, which is always a “dreadful certainty”—i.e., a dread that becomes certain of a hidden relationship with God.

The ethical and religious stages correspond roughly to what Heideggerand Jaspers called, respectively, the inauthenticity and the authenticity of existence. Art was not as a rule recognized by modern existentialists as an autonomous stage; it was almost always for them an essential manifestation of existence itself

From that point of view, art would be a way of reshaping the world beyond its factual forms, in order that it might show their negative and troublesome characteristics. The directions of contemporary art that have deliberately forsaken the imitation of reality find their justification in that point of view.

Methodological Issues In Existentialism

The methods that existentialists employ in their interpretations have a presupposition in common: the immediacy of the relationship between the interpreter and the interpreted, between the interrogator and the interrogated, between the problem of being and Being itself..

Each existentialist thinker has defended and worked out his own method for the interpretation of existence. Heidegger, an existentialist with ontological concerns, availed himself of the philosophy of Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, The phenomenon is, from Heidegger’s point of view, not mere appearance, but the manifestation or disclosure of Being in itself. Phenomenology is thus capable of disclosing the structure of Being and hence is an ontologyof which the point of departure is the being of the one who poses the question about Being, namely, the human being.

Jaspers, an authority in psychopathology as well as in the philosophy of human existence, employed the method of the rational clarification of existence; he maintained that existence, as the quest for Being, is humanity’s effort of rational self-understanding, or universalizing, and of communicating—a method that presupposes that existence and reason are the two poles of the being of humans.

According to Sartre, the foremost philosopher of mid-20th-century France, the method of philosophy is existential psychoanalysis—i.e., the analysis of the “fundamental project” in which human existence consists. In contrast to the precepts of Freudian psychoanalysis, which stop short at the irreducibility of the libido, or primitive psychic drive, existential psychoanalysis tries to determine the “original choice” through which humans construct their world and decide in a preliminary way upon particular choices .

According to Marcel, the method of philosophy depends upon a recognition of the mystery of Being ; The Mystery of Being)—i.e., of the impossibility of discovering Being through objective or rational analyses or demonstrations. Philosophy should lead humanity up, however, to the point of making possible “the productive illumination of Revelation.”

According to humanistic existentialism, as represented by Abbagnano and Merleau-Ponty, the method of philosophy consists of the analysis and the determination—by employing all available techniques, including those of science—of the structures that constitute existence—i.e., of the relations that connect the individual with other beings and that figure, therefore, not only in the constitution of the individual but in the constitution of other beings as well.

Evaluation of Existentialism

The evaluation of existentialism has been quite negative. Some even view it as an ant philosophical movement. Others, however, do not take such a dismal view of it. James Collins believes that it is a challenging and instructive philosophy. It embodies a legitimate continuation of several important European traditions and addresses itself to vital problems of the greatest contemporary moment for both philosophy and life . Perhaps the somewhat morbid popular interest in the personality of Sartre may be advanced as an excuse for not giving careful hearing to the arguments of the existentialists


After studying the philosophy of Existentialism, the question will arise in anybody’s mind: how can the aims, curricula and methods in a school depend upon the individual’s choice and freedom? Organization of such a programmed would be impossible and bring about chaos.

The teacher’s individual relationship and close understanding of every pupil’s personality would require a great deal of time and effort.

The concepts of ‘Being’, ‘meaning’, ‘Person’ are not very clear and appear nebulous. It is not easy to build up an educational programmed when the terminology for the objectives of the educational process is not clear…

Educational standards and practices that manipulate the child’s behaviors in an arbitrary manner violate the principle of free choice.

Many teaching practices, testing procedures, and bureaucratic system of classifying children may be questioned.

Teachers who have learned to provide existential encounters for their students enable the learners, “to create meanings in a cosmos devoid of objective meaning to find reasons for being in a society with fewer and fewer open doors.”

There are some major areas of conflict between atheistic existentialism and traditional. The former’s complete denial of any forces outside the “human situation” and its rejection of any essential characteristic in man are contrary to traditional metaphysical beliefs. The radical subjectivity of existentialist epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics is also not in harmony with both traditional and many modern views of these issues.

Other limitations of existentialism lessen the acceptability of this school of thought as a philosophy for modern man. The most glaring one seems to be the naïve view the existentialists take of the “social realities” of the modern industrial, urban world. They offer no social theory for solving the complex problems of our scientific age Thus proposals for “individual living “ might appeal to the hermit or the frontiersman but they are of little help to the people who must spend their lives in large cities, work for large companies, worship in large congregations, and even recreate in crowds.. Man is responsible, not only for himself but for his fellowmen.

Yet another weakness might be noted in existentialist philosophy which limits its application to the modern world, namely, the neglect of the scientific mode of knowing in their general theory of knowledge. After all, this is the “age of science” and complete philosophy of life cannot relegate the philosophy of science to a position of minor importance.

As an educational philosophy, existentialism, at least in its present form, does not provide an adequate basis for educational theory. Perhaps this state of affairs is due to the fact that most existentialists have given no serious consideration to the development of the educational implications of their fundamental philosophical tenets.

There is no place in existentialist philosophy for social theory as developed within the other philosophies The existentialist often is accused of being “antisocial” in his behavior as well as in his philosophy. If existentialists have no theory of society, it might be more accurate to ask how they view other men. First, they would grant to others the same existential freedom which they demand for themselves. That is, man is never to be viewed as a means but rather as an end.

The school itself has become a place where the individual is “socialized” so that he can be a good group member, a good citizen rather than a good person. If existentialism does nothing else but bring about a proper balance between the individual and society, it will have merited the praise of educators.

The existential view of development is not without its critics, many of whom view of theory and its practices as representing a neurotic, narcissistic philosophy of pain and anguish.


In contrast, existentialism’s protagonists see it as the only hope for human survival as in existentialism.   Since existentialism is optimistic, the preaches the doctrine of action and emphasizes the concept of freedom, responsibility and choice, it has exerted an increasing appeal to the educator, who has been shown the new horizons

Interest is directed on the ‘man’ – his genuine or authentic self, his choices made with full responsibility of consequences, and freedom. It describes and diagnoses human weaknesses, limitations and conflicts

Man cannot be explained by reason as the idealists emphasize. It traces the origin of all these and anticipates that man will overcome them. These arise; they say when a man comes to have a sense of meaninglessness of his life.

They do not want man to be philistine (one whose interests are material and common place) or mediocre who submerges himself. They want the ‘transcendence’ of man, which means that he should become more and more ‘authentic’.

“Because I exist, because I think, therefore, I think that I exist.” According to the statement ‘I think’ it is clear that ‘I’ exists and it has existence. ‘I’ that exists is always subjective and not objective. Now the person because of knowing the object does not desire to know the object, but he emerges himself in knowing the self. Kierkegaard





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