Dr. V.K.Maheshwari, M.A (Socio, Phil) B.Sc. M. Ed, Ph.D.
Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V. (P.G) College, Roorkee, India
The terms measurement and evaluation assessment are sometimes used interchangeably; The word ‘evaluation’ is often confused with assessment, testing and measurement. Testing is only a technique to collect evidence regarding pupil behaviour. Measurement on the other hand, is limited to quantitative description of the student behaviour. Evaluation is a more comprehensive term which includes testing and measurement and also qualitative description of the student behaviour. It also includes value judgment regarding the worth or desirability of the behaviour measured or assessed.
Considering the importance of this relationship, Gronlund has indicated this relationship in the following equation:
Measurement = quantitative description of pupils (measurement) + value judgment
Evaluation = qualitative description of pupils (non-measurement) + value judgment
Thus, evaluation may not be based on measurement alone but it goes beyond the simple quantitative score.
Thus Evaluation is a concept that has emerged as a prominent process of assessing, testing and measuring. Its main objective is Qualitative Improvement. Evaluation is a process of making value judgements over a level of performance or achievement. Making value judgements in Evaluation process presupposes the set of objectives. Evaluation is the process of determining the extent to which the objectives are achieved. Concerned not only with the appraisal of achievement, but also with its improvement.Evaluation is continuous and dynamic. Evaluation helps in forming the following decisions
Definition of Evaluation
Tyler defined evaluation as “a systematic process of determining the extent to which educational objectives are achieved by pupils”. This definition indicates that evaluation is a systematic process, and it omits tile casual, informal or uncontrolled observation of the pupils. The definition also implies that objectives of education has to be identified in advance. Without predetermined objectives, it is not possible to judge the progress, growth and development of students.
Crombach defined evaluation as “the collection and use of information to make decisions about an educational programme”.
Wheeler defined evaluation as a more general judgement of the outcome of a programme, which involves the use of observations, various tests, questionnaires, interviews, etc. His emphasis was on the processes of educational evaluation.
Thus Evaluation can be conceptualised in the following manner:
1) Evaluation is an act or a process that allows one to make a judgment about the desirability or value of a measure.
2) Evaluation is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives
3) The word evaluation refers to the act or process of determining the value of something.
Accordingly evaluation is providing information for decision making. Thus evaluation is a systematic process of collecting evidence about students’ achievement in both cognitive and non-cognitive areas of learning on the basis of which judgments are formed and decisions are made.
Evaluation in teaching and Learning
Evaluation is an integral part of any teaching and learning programme. Whenever a question is asked and answered evaluation takes place. Thus, both teaching and evaluation overlap and merge into each other. In fact, it is not possible to have teaching and learning without evaluation.
Both teaching and evaluation are based on the instructional objectives which provide direction to them. Instructional objectives are those desirable behaviours which are to be developed in students. It is for achieving the instructional objectives that instruction is provided and it is to see whether the instructional objectives have been achieved and to what extent, that the evaluation is made. The interrelationship of objectives, instructional process or the learning experience and evaluatiot in a programme of teaching can be expressed more clearly through the following diagram:
The above diagram illustrates that the three components of teaching and learning constitute an integrated network in which each component depends on the other. . Thus, through evaluation, the teacher not only assesses as to how far the student has achieved the objectives of teaching but also judges the effectiveness of the learning experiences, methodologies, means and the materials used for achieving those objectives.
Purpose of Evaluation in Education
Evaluation serves numerous purposes in education, Some of the important purposes are to grade, rank, classify, compare and promote the students, It is also used for certifying the completion of a course, selection of students for admission or scholarship, and for predicting their future success in different endeavours.
The sole purpose of evaluation has been to bring about quality improvement in education which it does by providing feedback regarding students’ learning, classroom teaching, effectiveness of curriculum and course content, It also helps bring about all round development of the students’ personality when it is used for developing their non-cognitive capacities.
Characteristics of a Good Evaluation Programme
The meaning, types and purpose of evaluation lead us to arrive at the following characteristics of a good evaluation programme in educational institutions.
Evaluation is a Dynamic Process
Evaluation is based on learning experiences, it also provides evidence about the effectiveness of that learning experience. Thus, evaluation keeps validating the whole teaching-learning process through regular feedback. Thus evaluation programme brings in dynamism and leads to continuous improvement in the entire educational process.
Evaluation is a Cooperative process
, The teacher alone cannot gel all the evidence required about student’s growth. To collect evidence regarding social relationships, emotional behaviour, initiative, scientific attitudes, social attitudes, likes and dislikes, etc. collaboration ofthe student peers, parents, other teachers and all those who watch him/her grow and develop is necessary.
Evaluation is an Objective-oriented Process
. It is for the achievement of the instructional objectives that the instruction is given. evaluation is made to confirm whether the instructional objectives have been achieved and to what extent. The selection of evaluation techniques and tools is also based on the objectives to be evaluated.
Evaluation is a Continuous Process
Continuous evaluation is, therefore, essential for getting reliable evidence about student’s growth and development.
Evaluation is a Comprehensive Process
Aa good evaluation programme should evaluate both the cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of learner growth. Apart from evaluating all possible objectives, comprehensive evaluation involves the use of multiple tools and techniques to procure information on different aspects of personality growth.
Evaluation is a Decision Making Process
At every step of the teaching-learning process evaluation is a must . Before the instruction is started, it is necessary to determine the entering behaviour of students to decide the strategies, learning material and even appropriate objectives of teaching. Evaluation helps the teachers to make judgments and take decisions at different stages in a pupil’s educational career.
Principles of Evaluation
As Evaluation is a means to an end, not an end in itself. There are certain principles which may provide direction to the process of evaluation and may also serve as the criteria for adopting a particular device or technique of evaluation to yield the desired positive results.
1. Determining and Clarifying’ What’ aspect of the Evaluation
. The classroom teacher or evaluator should always be perfectly clear in bis mind about what he is aiming to achieve i.e. what to evaluate and how to evaluate
2. Selection of Appropriate Evaluation Techniques
There are a number of evaluation techniques. Out of them one technique is appropriate in some cases which may not be so in others. Therefore, the evaluator needs to select the one which serves his/her purpose best.
3. Determining Comprehensiveness of Evaluation Programmes
It means to. assess pupils’ progress in all areas. Educational evaluation, apart from testing knowledge , should also bring about student’s originality and his ability to use the ideas, and his ability to think and apply the knowledge and skills already achieved.
4. For Comprehensive Evaluation Combining a variety of Evaluation Techniques be adopted
Therefore, to make evaluation comprehensive, different types of evaluation procedures should be adopted depending on their suitability . Moreover, use of a variety of techniques provides an evaluator sufficient evidences of different aspects of pupil achievement on different objectives, because more the evidence better the evaluation.
5. Treat Evaluation as a Means to an End, not an End in itself
In the teaching-learning process, evaluation should be done with a purpose, and not for the sake of evaluation only. Administering a test, scoring the scripts and collecting the data without making any use of this information for the pupils is a waste of effort
Functions of Evaluation :
(a) To locate and identify the weaknesses and strength in learning on the part of a learner.
(b) To pinpoint areas where remedial measures may be desirable.
To provide a basis for a modification of the curriculum, syllabus or courses.
To bring out the inherent capabilities of a student, such as proper attitudes, habits, manipulative skills, appreciation and understanding in addition to conventional acquisition of knowledge.
To select suitable persons ofr a particular course or career.
To motivate pupils towards better attainment and growth.
6) Teaching :
a) To improve instruction.
b) To ascertain how far could learning objective be achieved;
c) To provide the empirical evidences about the effectiveness of teaching strategies, tactics and aids.
7) Guidance :
a) To assist a person in decision making about a course or subjects within a course and careers;
b) To enable a learner to know his pace of learning;
c) To make provision for guiding the growth of individual pupils;
d) To provide a basis for the introduction of experiences to meet the needs of individuals and groups of pupils.
a) To test the efficiency of teachers in providing learning experience and the effectiveness of instruction and of classroom activates;
b) To help in developing a comprehensive criterion test.
To assign rank or grade to the learners of a give group. ( Example : The unit test)
To give reinforcement and feedback to teachers and learners.