MALPRACTICES IN EXAMINATIONS- The Termites Destroying the Educational Setup

Dr. V.K. Maheshwari, Former Principal

K.L.D.A.V(P.G) College, Roorkee, India.

Unfortunately, the process of examination in Indian  schools and colleges has become a “contemporary shame” . This is because of the phenomenon of examination malpractice that has become endemic in the educational system.  Students are involved because they want to achieve success; parents are involved because they want good grades for their wards; teachers and others are involved because of the financial, material and other intangible gains derivable from involvement in examination malpractice.

The quality of education that we impart to our youth and the priority at which we rate it contribute largely to the formation of the attitudes they carry over into public life. So whatever kind of seed we sow in the classroom, the manner in which we nurture it and the strength which it imbibes in its various stages of growth will all determine the harvest that the nation will reap in the form of its educated youth coming out of the schools, colleges and universities. The imprints of these institutions of learning will become indelible marks clearly visible in all fields of our national life; this great impact of education on the national character is understandable once we recognize both the short term as well as long term power education wields over all who go through its process.

The value and functionality of any educational system lie in its ability to actualize the goals of education. In educational systems, world over, the examination  process makes the difference. The goals of national educational systems and indeed national development become like mirage if examination ethics is not encouraged and instituted . Till date, examinations still remain the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have achieved after a period of schooling. Hence, any situation that undermines examinations poses a great threat to the validity and reliability of educational system..

Examination is the pivotal point around which the whole system of education revolves and the success or failure of the system of examination is indeed an indicator of the success or failure of that particular system of education. It would be pertinent to examine the present system of examination with a view to determine as to whether it actually serves the purposes it purports to serve.

The two basic assumptions of any examination worth the name are that

(a) It should be valid and. An examination is said to be valid if it performs the functions which it is designed to perform.

(b) It should be reliable. The concept of reliability, of course, refers to consistency of measurement.

In  fact, the prevailing system of examination and its mode of conduct defy both these assumptions. The system has degenerated to an extent that its validity and reliability are questionable. Examination is no longer regarded as a test for evaluating the performance or judging the scholastic attainment of students. The reason being that there is a complete breakdown of the whole system of examination, almost all over the country, and at all level of education.

The Meaning of Examination Malpractices

Examination malpractice is defined as a deliberate wrong doing contrary to official examination rules designed to place a candidate at an unfair advantage or disadvantage. Examination malpractice is any illegal act committed by a student single handedly or in collaboration with others like fellow students, parents, teachers, supervisors, invigilators,  and anybody or group of people before, during or after examination in order to obtain undeserved marks or grades.

The Examination  malpractice is any act of omission or commission by a person who in anticipation of, before, during or after any examination fraudulently secure any unfair advantage for himself or any other person in such a manner that contravenes the rules and regulations to the extent of undermining the validity, reliability, authenticity of  the examination and ultimately the integrity of the certificates issued. Actually examination malpractice is any irregular behaviour exhibited by a candidate or anybody charged with the conduct of examination before, during or after the examination that contravenes the rules and regulations governing the conduct of such examination.

Factors Encouraging Malpractice in Examination

Examination malpractice, a variety of corruption is sustained by whatever sustains corruption in the country. Political activism has eroded the moral values of the Indian society. Social, economic, political, religious and educational vices are celebrated and rewarded in the country while virtue is punished. How can students, teachers and others shun examination malpractice when they “see criminals being set free through legalisms and court room gymnastics or worse, through wretched and criminal influence peddling?”

The phenomenon of examination malpractice is influenced by many factors. , lack of confidence as a result of inadequate preparation, peer influence, societal influence, parental support and poor facilities in schools are some of the factors responsible for examination malpractices. Writing in the same vein, many research scholars identified school programmes, teaching learning environment, the teacher, the student, over value of certificates, and parental support as some factors responsible for examination malpractice in the contemporary educational system

Contemporary  Indian  society places great emphasis on success goals without equivalent emphasis on institutional means of attaining these goals. The society  is characterized by a heavy emphasis on success and wealth without a corresponding emphasis on legitimate means and avenues to be used in achieving success. Everything in India  these days is driven by the desire for success irrespective of the means used in achieving success. The country has become a commercial venture and no longer a place for selfless service. Everyone is out to make quick money and patriotism is endangered. There is a disjunction between the culturally acclaimed goals and the institutional procedures for achieving these goals. The society, as it is constituted today, is founded on faulty/fragile education, political, economic, physical and social environment that cannot produce a better tomorrow . The country is bedevilled with social and economic ills such as castism ,provincialism, moral decadence, embezzlement, social injustice, corruption, and so on.Nowadays  It has become a society where the custom is to decorate miscreants, knaves, scam artists and violators of national trust with national honours and appoint them to exalted public offices

A society that places exceptionally strong emphasis on goal achievement without a corresponding emphasis on institutionalized means of achieving these goals is bound to exert pressures on some members of the society that may eventually resort to the use of any technically expedient means in achieving these goals irrespective of whether the means employed is legitimate or not. The process whereby exaltation of the end generates a de-institutionalization of the means to the end occurs in many societies where the two components of the social structure are not highly integrated.

Closely related to the moral decadence in the society is the greed for money. The monetary rewards accruing to participants of examination malpractice is enormous and unimaginable. If the police can openly accept bribe on the highways, why would those involved in the conduct of examinations not accept monetary incentives to subvert the conduct of examinations? Parents and guardians are ready to give encouragement and pay costs because they desperately want their children and wards to acquire certificates/ degrees. . The use of malpractices in examinations in certain areas has indeed become a thriving business for the examination mafia.

Furthermore, there is the issue of over-value of certificates. The problem of over value of certificates could be traced to the colonial past when the colonial masters issued certificates as testimonials to the natives who had undergone some form of instruction in administration. Such administrative certificates instantly catapulted the holders from life ordinary and transformed them into local economic and social superiors. Certificates or similar credentials became instant means of considerable social and economic leverage and opportunities for future political power. Ever since, the value system had placed emphasis on certificates because of their assumed transformational power. This inherited notion has dominated and suffused the Indian education system so much so that the product of the system preferred to flaunt certificates and credentials rather than knowledge, skill and competence. Consequently, students engage in short -cut means of acquiring these certificates during examinations.

In the same vein, parental indiscipline and abuse of wealth sustain the phenomenon of examination malpractice. Many parents believe that with their wealth they can catapult their children to any heights in the society even if it involves buying question papers and bribing teachers and invigilators to ensure that their children pass examinations. It has been widely reported that parents and teachers aid and abet examination malpractice directly or indirectly. Parents go to the extent of bribing their way through to ensure that their wards get unearned grades while teachers encourage examination malpractice because they lack the zeal to work but want to be praised for job not done

Impact of Examination Malpractices

The malady of examination malpractice  seems to be aggravated by the large scale and shameful involvement of all those who take part in examination administration .  Accusing fingers have been pointed at teachers, school heads, parents, students, examination officials and even security agents as those responsible for examination malpractice in the educational setup.

The incidences of examination malpractice are so widespread that every examination season witnesses the emergence of new and ingenious ways of cheating. The impact of malpractices in examination is so wide that, every aspect of our individual or social life is feeling its negative influence .It is directly or indirectly causing wide spread damage to our social ,psychological and moral personality structure

The following are few areas which seems to be most affected

Defeats the Very Purpose of Examination -The purpose of examination is to provide reliable feedback about the status of achievement of the candidate, use of malpractices seriously hampers the reliability of the test result. Directly hampering the very purpose of test.The use of malpractices this way erodes the faith in the very institution of the examination.

Discourage Good Candidates from Studying Hard Good candidates are tempted to believe ‘if you cannot beat them, join them’ especially as they see other candidates get away with their corrupt behaviors. This behavior may be contagious as more and more candidates tend to join in examination malpractice. They believe that even if they are caught, they will get away with it and the end will justify the means Denies good innocent students’ opportunity for admission Many good students have been denied admission in good and reputed institutions by the corrupt ones who through examination malpractice have better scores and grades. The best brains that could help in research and development are likely to be thrown out or frustrated while seeking admission.

Delays the Processing of Examination Scores and Grades Every year, many students are caught for engaging in various examinations malpractices which needs to be investigated before results are released. Though some results are withheld pending the determination of the cases, some are decided before results are released. This extends processing time.

Dissatisfies Candidates Candidates who possess certificates they cannot defend are dissatisfied. They have psychological problems arising from the way they acquired their certificates. In some instances, they will not be bold to present the certificates because they can be presented with tasks that will require them to defend the certificates

Decreases Job Efficiency This has a serious implication on the gross domestic job management of the country. It also has effect on the general quality and standard. Imagine the havoc of a half backed medical doctor could wreck on human lives. What about teachers who cannot competently handle the subject they are trained to teach. There is a chain effect of examination malpractices on the educational system and the society as a whole.

leads to Irreversible Loss of Credibility. The examination process has become endangered to the extent that certification has almost lost its credibility . Certificates and degree  no longer seem to reflect skill and competence A country that becomes noted for examination malpractice losses international credibility. The implication is that documents emanating from such country will be treated with suspicion. Consequently, certificates awarded by such country’s educational institutions are disbelieved. Such country’s educational institutions are as good as dead as far as international cooperation in education is concerned.

Road to Black Future .The fight against corruption cannot succeed if examination malpractice continues to be endemic in the educational system. As leaders of tomorrow who have gone through a school system characterized by academic fraud and dishonesty, the youths of the country will sow and nurture this fraudulent behaviour in any organization they find themselves. They will be destined to a life of crime, fraud and corrupt practices.

Generally  used Malpractices in Examination

The malpractices are commonly committed in examination at the pre-conduct, conduct and evaluation stages. Range from leakage of question papers to copying, changing answer books, impersonation, misconduct in examination centre, approaching invigilators/examiners, making false entries in award list/ examination registers and issuing fake certificate/degrees etc. Such acts may be broadly categories

1-      Allotment of choice examination centres.

2-        Appointment of choice invigilating staff.

3-        Leaking information about question papers, identification of invigilating staff and paper setters/examiners.

4-       Bribing/influencing/terrorizing examination staff, invigilators and paper setters/examiners. Approaching  invigilating staff Provide bribe and gifts.

5-        Possessing cheating material (written/printed/electronic device etc) or copying from such material.

6-        Giving/receiving assistance to copy in examination centre.


7-       Changing/replacing roll numbers and answer books.

8-        Disclosing candidates’ identity in answer books.

9-        Misconduct, carrying offensive weapons, refusing/resisting the lawful orders of supervisory staff, creating disturbance, instigating other candidates, threatening or assaulting the invigilating staff, impeding the progress of examination, in or outside the examination.

10-     Smuggling answer books in or outside the examination centre.

11-     Addition to answer books after examination.

12-     Manipulating marks through fictitious entries in award list/examination register.

13-    Sale of examination centre to organized gangs where cheating/unfair means are arranged.

14-    Helping the candidates to use unfair means in any form and by any one in or outside the examination centre.

15-     Helping the candidates in viva voce, practical examination.

16-     Attempting or abetting the commission of any of the afore-said acts.

17-    - Any other act considered dishonest, unfair, corrupt etc

18-   Communicating in Codes- there are dozens of codes students have devised: hand position, foot position or foot tapping, test position, noises like clicking of pens, clothing positions, etc.

19-   Altering Records through – Hacking into the computer , Changing the grade book , Stealing the grade book , Stealing the exams before grades are entered

20-   Leaving Class- Leaving the test room and getting help (most often, under the pretence of a bathroom break).

21-     Misrepresentation/impersonation. Convincing  someone else to take the test


Examination malpractice in India has attained a frightening proportion, it is sophisticated and institutionalized. Efforts by government administration and stakeholders in the educational sector to curtail the ugly trend have not yielded any fruit. It is saddening to note that examination bodies, government functionaries, school authorities, invigilators, parents and students all participate in the iniquitous exam malpractice

The menace of malpractice usage in education is so widespread that it nearly impossible to identify one single culprit. Different agents are involved in examination malpractice

Here  are few  situations who indirectly encourages malpractice in examinations

  • Examining body like boards/university etc Supervisory staff is unfairly selected on the basis of nepotism .
  • Examination centres are without rules .There is no check who should be allowed and who should not be allowed.
  • Poor paper setting: paper setters are mostly untrained and unaware of modern approaches to assessment. The exam papers are hardly representative of the entire curriculum.
  • Scoring of papers: Examiners hardly receive any instructions for scoring the papers, they prefer to check the papers at home and that most markers mark one paper in only 5 to 10 minutes.
  • Material publication There are model papers and, guess paper guides available in the market with readymade answers.
  • Negligence of invigilators Teachers/supervisors are non-vigilant during supervision. They allow mobile, peon, chowkidar, watchman to provide cheating to students.
  • High stakes of examination Students freely commit unfair means by the force of pistol, knife, oral and physical threats.
  • Student’s personal factors Supported by parents High parental expectations Inadequate preparation and desire to pass at all cost.
  • Poor preparation promotes poor performance. Affected by the previous experiences/ Friends provide them encouragement.
  • Supported by society Lack of school resources No observational strategies, Overcrowded examination centers Not enough space Poor seating arrangement
  • Defunct security Laxity in prosecuting offenders Lack of serious penalty for past offenders. Police also provide help and unable to ensure security Law enforcing agencies not dealt with impersonation act etc set the culprit free after taking bribe.
  • Teacher’s role Lack of devotion to their profession Unawareness towards teaching learning objectives Not providing moral training to students · Gross inadequacy of qualified teachers in our schools·

The Remedial Suggestions

Establishing cause-effect relationship is the only way to solve any problem in a systematic manner. In order to avoid “blind search” one must analyze the entire structure. The process of examination can be analyzed in terms of cause responsible for examination malpracticess, then and then only the remedial management is possible. Like any other systematic effort the process of examination too should  be analyzed in the similar manner.

To fight effectively this war against exam malpractice, all the agents of socialization must participate actively in stemming the ugly scenario.

The actualization of the goals of education will continue to be a mirage if the scourge of examination malpractice is not eradicated from the system. The country will end up producing graduates who lack the knowledge, skill and competence to exploit the resources of the nation.

This problem is symptomatic of a disease in our educational system which is eating into the vitals of our society. This malaise is harmful for the moral and intellectual development of our youth. It is afflicting the ethical and social fabric of our society. This state of affairs must not last for long. There is a dire need for taking measures to put an end to this evil.

Examination malpractice, which started in India as a minor misdemeanour has not only assumed a frightening dimension, it seems to have become a permanent feature of India education system. Efforts by  governments, examining bodies, institutions, individuals and concerned groups towards eradicating it have not yielded meaningful results. Rather, the situation has become worse in recent times. The new trend involves an organized system of the supervisors, invigilators, teachers, and in some cases heads of schools. There is therefore the need for a team effort to stem this social malaise that has become inimical to educational development in the country. Since previous approaches aimed at curbing this hydra-headed problem seem to have yield no dividends, we suggest  few  strategies for curbing this menace :

Sincere Implementation of Legislation by Government and Other Agencies .Some sort of  Examination Malpractice Act (,like the one promulgated by U.P.. state in india ,some 25 years back and reversed due to political pressures) must be promulgated and enacted with sanctions and penalties spelt out for offenders and participants in examination malpractice ( Like Examination Malpractice Act No. 33 of 1999 in Nigeria , stipulates a minimum punishment of fifty thousand naira (#50,000.00) and a maximum of five years imprisonment, without option of fine, for violators of the offences stipulated in the Act. The offences are: cheating at examinations, stealing of question papers, impersonation, disturbances at examination, obstruction of supervision, forgery of result slip, breach of duty, conspiracy and aiding, etc  )Since earlier approaches have not curbed examination malpractices, we are of the view that a more pragmatic approach to the problem should be adopted. Experience in the fight against corruption in India has shown that only the creation of a special commission can address adequately this crisis facing the education sector. To this end, an Examination Malpractice Commission should be created to address this social malaise. such a body should be independent and empowered to have its team of investigators and prosecutors.

Quick and Effective Action.There is a old saying that” justice delayed is justice denied”. Government and its agencies should henceforth stop handling cases of examination malpractice with kid gloves. The law should not recognize sacred cows. Anyone caught cheating should be made to face the music of irrespective of status or connections.

No leniency will be shown to the students caught with cheating. The students can be detained for a year. This decision was taken by Bench of Delhi High Court. Previously the students were spared after a plea but that did not stop students from cheating. A strict and severe punishment is believed to lessen the amount of cheaters inside the examination hall. If students are caught within the examination hall with a chit that contains materials related to the exam, he will be accused of malpractice. It is not important whether he uses the chit for cheating or not

Invigilators, school authorities, police personnel and other exam officials should be put under surveillance as they are major stakeholders in the business of examination malpractice.

In order to facilitate its quick dispensation of justice, a schedule of rules should be made to side tract the prevailing procedural rules that often lead to inordinate delays. In addition, such a body should be independent, devoid of government interference, and provision for it’s funding backed by law.

Construction of a Valid and Reliable test-

First step in constructing an effective achievement test is to identify what you want students to learn from a unit of instruction. Consider the relative importance of the objectives and include more questions about the most important learning objectives. If, however, the test focuses on a few objectives to the exclusion of others, students will not have the opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of other aspects of the material and you may not be able to make an accurate assessment of each student’s knowledge. The learning objectives that to be emphasize will determine not only what material to include on the test, but also the specific form the test will take. For example, if it is important that students be able to do long division problems rapidly, consider giving a speeded test. The types of questions to be used will also depend on the learning objectives. If it is important for students to understand how historical events affected one another, then short answer or essay questions might be appropriate. If it is important that students remember dates, then multiple-choice or fill-in-the-blank questions might be appropriate.

Writing Good  Test Items. Once you have defined the important learning objectives and have, in the light of these objectives, determined which types of items and what form of test to use, you are ready to begin the second step in constructing an effective achievement test. This step is writing the test items. While the different types of questions–multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank or short answer, true-false, matching, and essay–are constructed differently, the following principles apply to constructing questions and tests in general.

1. Use simple and clear language in the questions. If the language is difficult, students who understand the material but who do not have strong language skills may find it difficult to demonstrate their knowledge. If the language is ambiguous, even a student with strong language skills may answer incorrectly if his or her interpretation of the question differs from the instructor’s intended meaning.

2. Make the instructions for each type of question simple and brief.

3. Write items that require specific understanding or ability developed in that course, not just general intelligence or test-wise.

4. Do not write questions in the negative. If you must use negatives, highlight them, as they may mislead students into answering incorrectly

5. Do not suggest the answer to one question in the body of another question. This makes the test less useful, as the test-wise student will have an advantage over the student who has an equal grasp of the material, but who has less skill at taking tests.

6.  Use Multiple-choice questions as they  are more easily and objectively graded than essay questions and are more difficult to answer correctly without the required knowledge The following are a few guidelines for multiple-choice question construction.

1. State clearly in the instructions whether you require the correct answer or the best answer to each item.

2.. The grammar or structure of the main part of the question must not contain clues to the correct response, however.

3. Make incorrect alternatives attractive to students who have not achieved the targeted learning objectives.

4. Vary randomly the placement of correct responses.

5. Make all choices exactly parallel. Novice test writers tend to make the correct answer longer and more carefully worded and, by doing so, may provide a clue to the correct answer.

6. Never offer “all of the above” or “none of the above” as an alternative in a best-response multiple-choice question. Whether “none of the above” is chosen as a better response than one of the other options may depend on what evidence the student considers rather than how well he or she understands the material.

8. Multiple sets of question paper may also be used to ensure that all the students do not get the same question paper.

Effective Administration of the Test. In a latest directive issued by the government it has been stated that the students appearing for the Tamil Nadu state board examinations will not be allowed to wear belts, shoes and even socks inside the examination hall. The directorate has issued an advisory for examination hall superintendents to instruct students to keep shoes, socks and belts outside the examination hall. Moreover, the students will not be permitted to wear hi-tech wristwatches and mobile phones and scraps of paper inside the hall. Justifying the decision taken by the Directorate, one of the officials stated that students commonly hide answers inside their shoes or socks. Some even hide scraps of paper inside their belts, which is difficult to spot. In order to save time of the hall superintendents and the invigilators such a step will prove effective. Give magisterial powers (including right to arrest) to examination board officials. Conduct frequent and unannounced visits to examination canters. Answer-sheets be collected in a systematic manner. The collected answer-sheets be properly packed, sealed, and stored Do not allow writing names on answer scripts. Write fictitious roll numbers that will be substituted later with the real candidate’s number. Adequate sitting arrangement should be provide during exams to discourage cheating.

Adoption of Objective Evaluation Procedure.This aspect is related with the final out-put it has direct impact on malpractice in examination, naturally greater care and emphasis is required for making this aspect more reliable.

The use of score key will definitely increase the reliability of a test. The test constructor should provide the procedure or scoring the answer script. Directions must be given wether the scoring will be made by a scoring key (when the answer is recorded on the test paper) or by scoring stensil (when the answer is recorded on separate sheet) and how marks will be awarded to the test items. In case of essay type items, it should be indicated whether to score with point method or with the rating method. In the point method each answer is compared with setup ideal answer in the scoring key. Then a given number of points are assigned. In the rating method the answer s are rated on the bases of degrees of quality and determine the credit assigned to each answer. When the students do not have sufficient time to answer or are not ready to take the test at particular time. They guess the correct answer. In that case to eliminate the effect of guessing some measures must be employed. But there is a lack of agreement among psychometrician about the value of correction formula. In the words Ebel; neither the instruction nor penalties will remedy the problem of guessing. Keeping in view the test constructor should give the enough time for answering the test items. In order to control the personal bias of the examiner there should be a provision for central evaluation. A particular question should be checked by the same examiner. A rule book should be prepared before the evaluation of the scripts.

Work Shop for Invigilators for Making them Aware about the use of Technology in Cheating.The emergence of technological devices has  spawned new and more sophisticated approaches to dishonest conduct during examinations. A lot of academic information is stored in handsets for direct use in examination halls or for onward transfer via SMS to other students any where in the country Students with personal digital assistants or cell phones can beam or call data silently from across a classroom, or with a cell phone from anywhere off the school environment.   Few of the Genrally used devices are Watch: “data bank” watches can hold  notes for cheatings.  Pager: Setting electronic pagers to store messages students can conveniently call up when the teacher’s not looking. Palm Pilots and other personal digital assistants (and some calculators, too) allow information to be beamed across a distance via infrared. A student can use a laser pointer (many look like pens) to “write” the answers or as part of a code.  Calculator: programmable calculators can hold text, formulas, even pictures.  Micro-recorder: used when the same test is delivered in multiple sections; questions are whispered into microphone for later transcription.  Wireless Monitor: ,  a body pack transmitter concealed under clothing combined with a small flesh-colored earpiece; . A cell phone plus a small earpiece are also used for the same purpose.

Empowerment of Teachers.Teacher empowerment should not be limited to professional development alone; it should cover his reward system and job environment. A special welfare scheme should be introduced for teachers at all levels. In fact, teachers should have a robust salary structure. In addition to this, his job environment should be enlarged and enriched to make his job interesting and worthwhile. These put together will enhance the teacher’s image and commitment to his job.

Teachers cannot provide experience and activities that guide students’ progress towards understanding of ideas if they themselves do not know what these ideas are; neither can they provide experiences that challenge students understanding if they themselves share the same misunderstanding. The implication of this is that greater emphasis should now be placed on teacher professional development within a whole school development or improvement strategy alongside a greater focus on curriculum, instruction and  performance standard of pupils Such programmes should be funded by government agencies and mounted by suitable learning units/centres. Teachers continuing education programme must be linked to curriculum change and practices that can influence learners’ achievement.

Less Emphasis on Certificates/Degrees and Paper Qualification.Our present  education system is largely certificate/ degree  oriented. Instead of knowledge, skills and competence too much value and emphasis are placed on certificates/degrees . The market place value and reward for the level and face value quality of certificates promote tendencies for and acts of cheating in the process of certification. Many school leavers and dropouts have certificates without knowledge and skills. Most of the social maladies like manufacture and sale of fake drugs by pharmacists, collapse of buildings, massive fraud in banks and miscarriage of justice are consequences of over emphasis and value on certificates. And if this trend is allowed to continue, the country will end up with doctors who cannot differentiate between vein and artery, lawyers who cannot differentiate between an accused person and the complainant and teachers who may not be able to spell the names of their schools correctly . It is high time the nation took certificates no more as passports to jobs or higher education; more emphasis should be placed on the competence and skill acquisition. The implication of this is that assessment of students should no longer be based on one Almighty examination.

Improved Funding of the Education Sector.The education sector  is grossly underfunded. The inadequate funding of the public school system is the cause of other problems that have undermined quality in the sector.  Funding efforts of education is low, and its budgetary priority for the education sector is even lower, Studies have shown that space facilities and equipment are in short supply at all levels of education

Teacher commitment was severely affected by their level of job satisfaction. Teachers were most dissatisfied by their workload, school facilities and services, professional development and reward system. In the same vein, graduates and other professionals from tertiary institutions reported poor study conditions in their institutions One of the consequences of this is involvement in academic fraud to cover the deficiency of under funding. With space facilities in short supply, examination halls will always be over crowded. An improvement on the current funding efforts will provide conducive teaching and learning environment.

Special  Economic Package for Examination Officials.In addition to the above measures,  a special welfare package should be put in place for examination officials to discourage them from financial and material inducements from  students, parents and others who may want to subvert examination process. These examination officials include teachers who invigilate examinations, supervisors who oversee the conduct of examinations in schools, officers of examination bodies who monitor the conduct of examinations and law enforcement agents who in charge of security in examination centres.

Remuneration for examination supervisors and invigilators should be reviewed and such remuneration should be promptly paid to prevent them from being tempted to involve in the rather lucrative ‘business’ of examination malpractice.

Actively Involve the Home Front.The home front must deliberately discourage their children and wards from further participation in the act by stopping the financing of exam malpractice for them. Encourage the children and ward to study harder.

Also parents have a lot to do by discouraging their children from partaking in examination fraud, examination passed through fraudulent act should not be encouraged, our parents must play their God-given role of breeding children with good morals that will be tomorrow’s leader, parents should know that they have the responsibility of inculcating in their children the right attitude that will help them in the future.

Campaigns to Develop Awareness about the Dangers of Examination Malpractice .Conduct a public awareness campaign to highlight the importance of integrity of the examination system.To be able to curb examination malpractices, there should be continuous grassroots campaigns and seminars organized by all related with the education sector on the dangers associated with examination malpractices. This will help to sensitize and conscientize the people. These campaigns will help the change in  people attitudes, external misbehaviours will also be positively affected. In addition, these seminars and campaigns will help restore the lost cherished moral values of honesty, hardwork, dedication and uprightness that hitherto characterized the Indian society. National and international examination board and organization should share information on new threats to examination security and procedures for counteracting malpractice.

The social vices Examination Malpractice of  bedevilling the society have permeated the entire segments of the education sector. It has very serious economic, political and social consequences The societal emphasis on success-goals, irrespective of the means employed in achieving these goals, has pressurized some participants in the education industry to strain toward societal apathy . Such participants have resorted to the use of illegitimate procedures in achieving success in examinations. The disjunction between culturally acclaimed goals and the institutionalized means of achieving these goals, coupled with the cultural context of great emphasis on success-goals, without equivalent emphasis upon institutional means of attaining these goals, have created an environment that predisposes some students, teachers, parents and others to examination malpractice.

Historical evidence proves that nations were made or unmade, battles lost and won, revolution wrought, so much so that entire empires collapsed or emerged due to the educational systems of various peoples of the World. Examination malpractice is a social evil that can damage society to the extent of possibly leading to a failed state.


Internet resources

  • http:// feather project
  • •
  • European Journal of Educational Studies 1(3), 2009
  • http://www.akuedu/AKUEB/pdfs/pubexam.pdf




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